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[en] Laser spot welding of stainless steel-nickel dissimilar couple has been studied experimentally and numerically. A three-dimensional heat and mass transfer model is used to simulate the welding process, based on the solution of the equations of mass, momentum, energy conservation and solute transport in weld pool. The calculated fusion zone geometry and element distributions are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. The role of fluid flow on temperature field and its evolution is analyzed by comparing two cases with and without considering convection. Temperature fields far away from the weld pool are quite similar, but exhibit large difference close to the heat source. During the early stage after formation of weld pool, the distribution of element Fe in weld pool is non-uniform, due to insufficient time for mixing. The speed for mass transport is the highest during the initial stage of weld pool formation and it decreases with time. Both heat and mass transport are significantly influenced by convection during laser spot welding of stainless steel and nickel.
[en] Exploratory experiments of laser welding cast Ni-based superalloy K418 turbo disk and alloy steel 42CrMo shaft were conducted. Microstructure of the welded seam was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Mechanical properties of the welded seam were evaluated by microhardness and tensile strength testing. The corresponding mechanisms were discussed in detail. Results showed that the laser-welded seam had non-equilibrium solidified microstructures consisting of FeCr0.29Ni0.16C0.06 austenite solid solution dendrites as the dominant and some fine and dispersed Ni3Al γ' phase and Laves particles as well as little amount of MC short stick or particle-like carbides distributed in the interdendritic regions. The average microhardness of the welded seam was relatively uniform and lower than that of the base metal due to partial dissolution and suppression of the strengthening phase γ' to some extent. About 88.5% tensile strength of the base metal was achieved in the welded joint because of a non-full penetration welding and the fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductility and brittleness. The existence of some Laves particles in the welded seam also facilitated the initiation and propagation of the microcracks and microvoids and hence, the detrimental effects of the tensile strength of the welded joint. The present results stimulate further investigation on this field
[en] Experiments of autogenous laser full penetration welding between dissimilar cast Ni-based superalloy K418 and alloy steel 42CrMo flat plates with 3.5 mm thickness were conducted using a 3 kW continuous wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser. The influences of laser welding velocity, flow rate of side-blow shielding gas, defocusing distance were investigated. Microstructure of the welded seam was characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Mechanical properties of the welded seam were evaluated by microhardness and tensile strength testing. Results show that high quality full penetration laser-welded joint can be obtained by optimizing the welding velocity, flow rate of shielding gas and defocusing distance. The laser-welded seam have non-equilibrium solidified microstructures consisting of γ-FeCr0.29Ni0.16C0.06 austenite solid solution dendrites as the dominant and very small amount of super-fine dispersed Ni3Al γ' phase and Laves particles as well as MC needle-like carbides distributed in the interdendritic regions. Although the microhardness of the laser-welded seam was lower than that of the base metal, the strength of the joint was equal to that of the base metal and the fracture mechanism showed fine ductility