Results 1 - 10 of 3142
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[en] Highlights: • We study relativistic strange star using Tolman–Kuchowicz metric. • Bag constant (55–75) MeV/fm remains within the predicted range for stable strange star. • Using observed values for mass and radius, we calculate different physical parameters. • This model satisfies energy conditions, TOV equations and all other stability criteria. • Solutions are completely free from any singularity and give stable stellar system. - Abstract: In this article we propose a relativistic model of a static spherically symmetric anisotropic strange star with the help of Tolman–Kuchowicz (TK) metric potentials (Tolman, 1939 and Kuchowicz, 1968). The form of the potentials are and where , , and are constants which we have to evaluate using boundary conditions. We also consider the simplest form of the phenomenological MIT bag equation of state (EOS) to represent the strange quark matter (SQM) distribution inside the stellar system. Here, the radial pressure relates with the density profile as follows, , where is the Bag constant. To check the physical acceptability and stability of the stellar system based on the obtained solutions, we have performed various physical tests. It is shown that the model satisfies all the stability criteria, including nonsingular nature of the density and pressure, implies stable nature. Here, the Bag constant for different strange star candidates are found to be (68–70) MeV/fm which satisfies all the acceptability criteria and remains in the experimental range.
[en] We discuss fundamental properties of the fastest apparent convergence (FAC) condition which is used as a variational criterion in optimized perturbation theory (OPT). We examine an integral representation of the FAC condition and a distribution of the zeros of the integral in a complex artificial parameter space on the basis of theory of Lefschetz thimbles. We find that the zeros accumulate on a certain line segment known as an anti-Stokes line in the limit , where is a truncation order of a perturbation series. This phenomenon gives an underlying mechanism that physical quantities calculated by OPT can be insensitive to the choice of the artificial parameter.
[en] Highlights: • A novel variational approach is presented. • It provides a shortcut towards the second variation of geometrical models. • This should be of interest, for its generality, to various areas of theoretical physics. - Abstract: A covariant simultaneous action for branes in an arbitrary curved background spacetime is considered. The term ‘simultaneous’ is imported from variational calculus and refers to the fact that extremization of the action produces at once both the first and second variations of a given geometrical action for the brane. The action depends on a pair of independent field variables, the brane embedding functions, through the canonical momentum of a reparametrization invariant geometric model for the brane, and an auxiliary vector field. The form of the action is analogous to a symplectic potential. Extremization of the simultaneous action produces at once the equations of motion and the Jacobi equations for the brane geometric model, and it also provides a convenient shortcut towards its second variation. In this note, we consider geometric models depending only on the intrinsic geometry of the brane worldvolume, and discuss briefly the generalization to extrinsic geometry dependent models. The approach is illustrated for Dirac–Nambu–Goto [DNG] branes. For a relativistic particle, a simultaneous action was introduced by Baański, that served as an inspiration for the present work.
[en] The historic observations of the neutron star merger GW170817 advanced our understanding of r-process nucleosynthesis and the equation of state (EOS) of neutron rich matter. Simple neutrino physics suggests that supernovae are not the site of the main r-process. Instead, the very red color of the kilonova associated with GW170817 shows that neutron star (NS) mergers are an important r-process site. We now need to measure the masses and beta decay half-lives of very neutron rich heavy nuclei so that we can more accurately predict the abundances of heavy elements that are produced. This can be done with new radioactive beam accelerators such as the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). GW170817 provided information on the deformability of NS and the equation of state of dense matter. The PREX II experiment will measure the neutron skin of Pb and help constrain the low density EOS. As the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors improve, we expect to observe many more events. We look forward to exciting advances and surprises!
[en] Highlights: •The growing law of a billiard multiverse is independent of the discretization scale E. •The time for any final state to be accessible from any initial one is around 3E shocks. •The paths of billiard balls can change without changing initial or final states. •Space-time flexibility can be achieved through paths commutations and entanglement. -- Abstract: In a previous paper (Guillemant et al., 2018), we have shown using a 2D billiard toy model that the propagation of uncertainties resulting from space–time discretization leads to a classical multiverse. In this one we estimate the growing law of the number of its branches, thanks to an original shock indexation method that permits a very fast comparison of trajectories. For different involved parameters we use random sets of infinitesimally perturbed initial conditions. From each set, we compute a collection up to hundred millions of different billiard histories. Our main result is the calculation of a Brownian saturation time when the number of branches begins to exceed the total number of billiard states. We discuss the possibility suggested by this result to change locally the paths of objects without changing their past and future histories and then subverting their global system. We conclude that a unique but flexible space–time could compete with the current many-worlds interpretation claiming that each branch is a different universe.
[en] Highlights: •An efficient path-integral formulation of the Bose polaron problem is proposed. •The spectrum of an impurity moving in 1D Bose gas is given by analytic formula. •The effective-mass approximation reproduces well the exact Bose polaron spectrum. -- Abstract: The full momentum dependence of spectrum of a point-like impurity immersed in a dilute one-dimensional Bose gas is calculated on the mean-field level. In particular we elaborate, to the finite-momentum Bose polaron, the path-integral approach whose semi-classical approximation leads to the conventional mean-field treatment of the problem while quantum corrections can be easily accounted by standard loop expansion techniques. The extracted low-energy parameters of impurity spectrum, namely, the binding energy and the effective mass of particle, are shown to be in qualitative agreement with the results of quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
[en] Highlights: •We study the nonlinear generalization of the von Neumann equation. •We discuss the nonlinear von Neumann equation for the qubit states. •We analyze solutions to the Riccati system corresponding to evolution of a qubit. -- Abstract: The nonlinear generalization of the von Neumann equation is studied. The global version of this equation preserves convexity of the space of states. The particular case of the evolution of pure states refers to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation discovered by Gisin. The concrete realization of the nonlinear von Neumann equation is investigated in detail for the density matrix representing the qubit states. Such equation reduces to the integrable classical Riccati system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An interesting property of the nonlinear dynamics described by this system is the global asymptotical stability of stationary solutions related to evolution from mixed states to pure states.
[en] We investigate the diagonal entropy for ground states of the extended Kitaev chains with extensive pairing and hopping terms. The systems contain rich topological phases equivalently represented by topological invariant winding numbers and Majorana zero modes. Both the finite size scaling law and block scaling law of the diagonal entropy are studied, which indicates that the diagonal entropy demonstrates volume effect. The parameter of volume term is regarded as the diagonal entropy density, which can identify the critical points of symmetry-protected topological phase transitions efficiently in the studied models, even for those with higher winding numbers. The formulation of block scaling law and the capability of diagonal entropy density in detecting topological phase transitions are independent of the chosen bases. In order to manifest the advantage of diagonal entropy, we also calculate the global entanglement, which cannot show clear signatures of the topological phase transitions. This work provides a new quantum-informatic approach to characterize the feature of the topologically ordered states and may motivate a deep understanding of the quantum coherence and diagonal entropy in various condensed matter systems.
[en] In 2017, G. P. de Brito and co-workers suggested a covariant generalization of the Kempf–Mangano algebra in a -dimensional Minkowski space–time (Kempf and Mangano, 1997; de Brito et al., 2017). It is shown that reformulation of a real scalar field theory from the viewpoint of the covariant Kempf–Mangano algebra leads to an infinite derivative Klein–Gordon wave equation which describes two bosonic particles in the free space (a usual particle and a ghostlike particle). We show that in the low-energy (large-distance) limit our infinite derivative scalar field theory behaves like a Pais–Uhlenbeck oscillator for a spatially homogeneous field configuration . Our calculations show that there is a characteristic length scale in our model whose upper limit in a four-dimensional Minkowski space–time is close to the nuclear scale, i.e., . Finally, we show that there is an equivalence between a non-local real scalar field theory with a non-local form factor and an infinite derivative real scalar field theory from the viewpoint of the covariant Kempf–Mangano algebra.
[en] Using a weak limit for the hopping integral in one direction in the Hofstadter model, we show that the fermion states in the gaps of the spectrum are determined within the Kitaev chain. The proposed approach allows us to study the behavior of Chern insulators (CI) in different classes of symmetry. We consider the Hofstadter model on the square and honeycomb lattices in the case of rational and irrational magnetic fluxes , and discuss the behavior of the Hall conductance at a weak magnetic field in a sample of finite size. We show that in the semiclassical limit at the center of the fermion spectrum, the Bloch states of fermions turn into chiral Majorana fermion liquid when the magnetic scale is equal to the sample size N. We are talking about the dielectric–metal phase transition, which is determined by the behavior of the Landau levels in 2D fermion systems in a transverse magnetic field. When a magnetic scale, which determines the wave function of fermions, exceeds the size of the sample, a jump in the longitudinal conductance occurs. The wave function describes non-localized states of fermions, the sample becomes a conductor, the system changes from the dielectric state to the metallic one. It is shown, that at N the quantum Hall effect and the Landau levels are not realized, which makes possibility to study the behavior of CI in irrational magnetic fluxes.