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[en] The aquatic macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus was evaluated for the removal of Cu2+ and Cr+6 from aqueous solutions during 15 days phytoextraction experiments. Results show that P. pusillus is capable of accumulating substantial amount of Cu and Cr from individual solutions (either Cu2+ or Cr+6). Significant correlations between metal removal and bioaccumulation were obtained. Roots and leaves accumulated the highest amount of Cu and Cr followed by stems. The bioaccumulation of Cr was significantly enhanced in the presence of Cu, showing a synergic effect on Cr+6 removal, presenting a good alternative for the removal of these metals from polluted aquifers. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report on both enhanced phytoextraction of Cr+6 in presence of Cu+2 and bioaccumulation of these heavy metals by P. pusillus. - Highlights: ► First report on enhanced phytoextraction of Cr+6 in the presence of Cu+2 by P. pusillus. ► P. pusillus can be a good candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated water bodies. ► Roots and leaves presented higher accumulation, suggesting that they are in charge of metal uptake. - We report enhanced effect of Cu+2 upon phytoextraction of Cr+6 by Potamogeton pusillus from water. Metals accumulation occurs mainly in roots and leaves of this aquatic plant.
[en] Dialysis equilibrium system was applied to investigate the roles of Cu(II) and Mg(II) on DOM-ofloxacin (OFL) interaction. The binding behavior of both cations and OFL were studied. The introduction of Cu(II) increased DOM-OFL interaction, while Mg(II) decreased DOM-OFL binding. Cu(II) binding to DOM was also increased by OFL, while Mg(II) binding was decreased by OFL. The change in OFL binding amount in the absence and presence of cations (ΔCb) was calculated and compared with cation binding (Cbm). ΔCb/Cbm was in the range of 1–3 for Cu(II) depending on the applied Cu concentration. Two ternary complexes of DOM-OFL-Cu and DOM-Cu-OFL were proposed. For Mg(II), ΔCb/Cbm was around −1 at Mg(II) concentrations lower than 1 mM, but decreased up to −5 with increasing Mg(II) concentration. The competitive effect of Mg(II) to OFL was thus proposed. FTIR spectra were collected for mechanistic discussion. - Highlights: ► Cu increased DOM-OFL binding while Mg inhibited DOM-OFL binding. ► OFL promoted DOM-Cu interaction but decreased DOM-Mg complexation. ► Ternary complexes of DOM-OFL-Cu and DOM-Cu-OFL increase Cu and OFL binding in DOM. ► Mg competes or shields binding sites for OFL in DOM. - Cu(II) promoted OFL-DOM interaction through the formation of ternary complexes, while the competitive binding between Mg(II) and OFL in DOM decreased OFL-DOM interaction.
[en] Surface soils were collected in Balang Mountain to explore the environmental process of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during air transport. The average concentrations of ∑25PCBs and ∑13PBDEs in soils were 163 pg/g and 26 pg/g, respectively. The significant correlations between the concentrations of pollutants and total organic carbon (TOC) indicated the importance of TOC in accumulation potential of POPs. The slopes from fitted curves of PCBs were highly related with logKoa, demonstrating that TOC dominates the soil-air exchange of PCBs. The TOC-normalized concentrations of contaminants in samples from below-treeline were higher than those from alpine meadow, probably due to the forest filter effect. The increasing trends of the concentrations with altitude from the alpine meadow samples, could be attributed to the mountain cold-trapping effect. And the weak cold-trapping effect of POPs might be due to the less precipitation in 2008 when comparing with those in 2006. - Highlights: ► Total organic carbon plays an important role in accumulation potential of POPs. ► Forest filter effect might enhance the chemical levels for below-treeline soils. ► Precipitation was the key factor of mountain cold-trapping effect in this area. ► The reduction of precipitation might lead to a weak cold-trapping effect of POPs. ► Higher level of BDE-153 at Site 7 probably resulted from the human disturbance. - The concentrations of POPs in soils in the east edge of the Tibetan Plateau were mainly influenced by forest filter effect and mountain cold-trapping.
[en] Biodegradation processes and changes in microbial community structure were investigated in black carbon (BC) amended soils in a laboratory experiment using two soils (black soil and red soil). We applied different percentages of charcoal as BC (0%, 0.5% and 1% by weight) with 100 mg kg−1 of phenanthrene. Soil samples were collected at different incubation times (0, 7, 15, 30, 60, 120 d). The amendment with BC caused a marked decrease in the dissipation (ascribed to mainly degradation and/or sequestration) of phenanthrene residues from soil. Extracted phenanthrene in black soil with 1% BC were higher, oppositely in red soil, 0.5% BC amendments were higher. There were significant changes in the PLFA pattern in phenanthrene-spiked soils with time but BC had little effect on the microbial community structure of phenanthrene-spiked soils, as indicated by principal component analysis (PCA) of the PLFA signatures. - Highlights: ► Extracted phenanthrene increased substantially as the BC amount increased. ► Extracted phenanthrene in black soil with 1% BC were higher, oppositely in red soil. ► BC caused a marked decrease in the dissipation of phenanthrene from soil. ► PLFA pattern in phenanthrene-spiked soils with time had significant changes. - BC amendments on phenanthrene extraction were different for two soils and time was a more effective factor in microbial community changes.
[en] Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall from predominately deciduous forests was measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry deposition was significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (μg/m2), range 3.5–23.4 μg/m2) than annual Hg wet deposition (median 9.6 μg/m2, range 4.4–19.7 μg/m2). The mean ratio of dry to wet Hg deposition was 1.3–1. The sum of dry and wet Hg deposition averaged 21 μg/m2 per year and 55% was litterfall dry deposition. Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of Hg in litterfall and ranged from 0.6 to 1.5%. Annual litterfall Hg and wet Hg deposition rates differed significantly and were weakly correlated. Litterfall Hg dry deposition differed among forest-cover types. This study demonstrated how annual litterfall Hg dry deposition rates approximate the lower bound of annual Hg dry fluxes. - Highlights: ► Annual litterfall mercury dry deposition was significantly higher than wet deposition. ► The mean ratio of dry to wet mercury deposition was 1.3–1. ► The sum of dry and wet mercury deposition averaged 55% litterfall dry deposition. ► Litterfall mercury deposition was highest in the oak-hickory forest-cover type. ► Methylmercury was a median 0.8% of mercury in litterfall and ranged to 1.5%. - A multi-year study of Mercury Deposition Network sites found that annual mercury dry deposition from litterfall in predominately deciduous forests exceeded annual mercury wet deposition in the eastern USA.
[en] Biochemical and organismal indices of metal tolerance were studied in Spodoptera exigua exposed to a cadmium-contaminated diet for one or many (33 or 61) generations. Reduced and oxidised glutathione, protein thiols, total anti-oxidant capacity level, glutathione transferase activity, and Cd accumulation were assayed in the haemolymph of the last instar larvae. The cadmium concentration in the whole larval body as well as larval survival, larval duration time and last instar body weight were also measured. Elevated cadmium concentration in the whole body, higher mortality and longer duration of the larval stage in one-generation exposed insects in comparison with those exposed for many generations suggest that metal tolerance builds over time. For the larvae from multigeneration metal treatment, the higher cadmium concentration in larval haemolymph positively correlated with glutathione oxidation and total anti-oxidant capacity. One-generation exposed insects had lower metal concentration in haemolymph than did 33-generation exposed insects. - Highlights: ► Effects of multigenerational Cd exposure on Spodoptera exigua larvae were assessed. ► Larvae from one-generation rearing were less tolerant than those from longer rearing. ► The former had lower survival, longer larval duration and higher Cd concentration. ► The latter had higher Cd concentration in haemolymph. ► Cd concentration correlated with some indices of oxidative stress in the haemolymph. - Multigenerational cadmium treatment affects metal tolerance, concomitant with anti-oxidant response and cadmium accumulation in larval haemolymph.
[en] The paper presents an analysis of measured riverine concentrations of 16 common organic water contaminants. From observed concentrations we back-calculate emissions and chemical half lives through a simple inverse model. The analysis does not allow identifying a single half life/emission factor combination, but a set of combinations which are Pareto-optimal (or “non-dominated”). The approach is shown to provide a rational basis for the screening of chemicals in rivers: with reference to the 16 chemicals considered here, estimated emission factors and half lives are consistent with the ones reported in other studies. For more precise estimates, prior knowledge about either emission factors or half lives is necessary. For the considered chemicals, loads to European seas can be subsequently estimated with an uncertainty usually within a factor of 2. The approach can be proposed for the inventorying of catchment-specific chemical pollutant emissions required for European environmental policies. - Highlights: ► Inverse modeling of emissions from river concentrations of common organic compounds. ► Fluxes estimated from observations through parameters half life and emission factor. ► The method is easy to include in any routine evaluation of monitoring results. ► It provides insights on chemical fate over large domains (as continental Europe). ► The method brings tightly together and interprets modeling and monitoring jointly. - An inverse model is applied to evaluate emission factors and loads to European seas of 16 water contaminants
[en] Organic complexing agents, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and picolinic acid, have been widely used at nuclear sites and are therefore found as common co-contaminants in radioactive contaminated land. This study has explored the mechanisms by which these three complexing agents affect the sorption of Th(IV) to pure silica and a natural sand. EDTA, NTA and, to a lesser extent, picolinic acid decreased the sorption of Th to silica, demonstrating the formation and solubility of Th complexes. However, Th sorption to sand was kinetically controlled and complexation enhanced the rate of Th sorption. EDTA and NTA did not sorb significantly to the sand, and metal desorption indicated that the mechanism involved exchange with sand-associated metals. At equilibrium, however, Th sorption was not affected by the presence of the ligands, and modelling suggested that the interaction between Th and the surface binding sites controlled Th sorption thermodynamically. - Highlights: ► Multi-analytical technique approach taken to define sorption processes. ► Picolinate complexes Th, but to a lesser extent than EDTA or NTA. ► Complexation decreased Th sorption to silica but increased its sorption rate to sand. ► Rapid sorption involved metal exchange rather than long term binding as ternary surface complexes. ► Initial Th complexation did not affect the sorption equilibrium. - Complexation by EDTA, NTA and, to a lesser extent, picolinic acid decreased Th sorption to silica but increased the rate of Th sorption to sand. Complexation did not affect the Th sorption once equilibrium had been reached.
[en] The aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial dissipation gradient of PAHs, including phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene, with various bioavailability represented with sequential extraction. Dissipation rates of PAHs in the rhizosphere were greater than those in the bulk soil. The n-butanol extracted fraction showed a general trend of dissipation during phytoremediation. Moreover, the formation of bound PAH residues was inhibited in the rhizosphere. While concerning the PAH toxicity, the reduction rates of PAH toxicity were significantly greater than total soil PAH concentrations. Microbial biomass was the highest at four mm away from the root surface. However, the PAH dissipation rates were the highest at one mm and two mm away from the root surface in high and low PAH treatments, respectively. These results suggest that rhizoremediation with rice is a useful approach to reduce the toxicity of PAHs in soil. - Highlights: ► Dissipation gradients were different in soils spiked with different PAHs concentrations. ► Butanol extracted fraction indicated the remediation in rhizosphere. ► Toxicity of PAHs was more efficiently reduced than total concentration. ► Promotion of PAHs degraders was not synchronized with microbial biomass. - Stimulation of PAH degradation in rice rhizosphere was not simultaneous with microbial biomass.
[en] Next to imposing direct lethal effects, pollutants may also indirectly impose mortality by making prey organisms more vulnerable to predation. We report that four water boatmen species differed strongly in direct endosulfan-imposed mortality, and only the species that suffered highest mortality, Sigara iactans, also showed a reduction in escape swimming speed. While head AChE activity was inhibited in all four species, body ChE was only inhibited in S. iactans where it covaried with escape swimming speed, indicating a mechanistic link between body ChE and swimming speed. Our study underscores the need for risk assessment to consider sublethal pollutant effects, which may considerably affect survival rates under natural conditions, also when testing concentrations of a pesticide that cause direct mortality. Such sublethal effects may generate discrepancies between laboratory and field studies and should be considered when designing safety factors for toxicants where the risk assessment is solely based on LC50 values. - Highlights: ► Endosulfan, even at lethal levels, did not affect swimming propensity when attacked. ► Endosulfan reduced escape swimming in one out of four tested corixid species. ► Lower body ChE levels were associated with a slower escape speed in one species. ► Head AChE activity was more sensitive to endosulfan than body ChE. ► Endosulfan had strongly different effects on the closely related species. - Endosulfan only detectably reduced escape swimming speed in one of the four studied water boatmen species and this was associated with an inhibition of body ChE.