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[en] Vertical cable seismic (VCS) data are the most suitable seismic data for estimating the quality factor Q values of layers under the sea bottom by now. Here the quality factor Q values are estimated using the high-precision logarithmic spectrum ratio method for VCS data. The estimated Q values are applied to identify the layers with gas hydrates and free gas. From the results it can be seen that the Q value in layer with gas hydrates becomes larger and the Q value in layer with free gas becomes smaller than layers without gas hydrates or free gas. Additionally, the estimated Q values are used for inverse Q filtering processing to compensate the attenuated seismic signal’s high-frequency component. From the results it can be seen that the main frequency of seismic signal is improved and the frequency band is broadened, the resolution of the VCS data is improved effectively.
[en] Virginia City, Montana, is located in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. Two natural springs supply the city’s water; however, the source of that water is poorly understood. The springs are located on the east side of the city, on the edge of an area affected by landslides. 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) and very low frequency electromagnetics (VLF-EM) were used to explore the springs and landslides. Two intersecting 2D resistivity profiles were measured at each spring, and two VLF profiles were measured in a landslide zone. The inverted 2D resistivity profiles at the springs reveal high resistivity basalt flows juxtaposed with low resistivity volcanic ash. The VLF profiles within the landslide show a series of fracture zones in the basalt, which are interpreted to be a series of landslide scarps. Results show a strong correlation between the inferred scarps and local topography. This study provides valuable geological information to help understand the source of water to the springs. The contact between the fractured basalt and the ash provides a sharp contrast in permeability, which causes water to flow along the contact and discharge at outcrop. The fracture zones along the scarps in the landslide deposits provide conduits of high secondary permeability to transmit water to the springs. The fracture zones near the scarps may also provide targets for municipal supply wells.
[en] Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) have been under rapid development for applications in the mineral exploration industry, mainly for aeromagnetic surveying. They provide improved detection of smaller, deeper and weaker magnetic targets. A traditional system flying an altitude of 100 m above ground level (AGL) can detect a spherical ore body with a radius of ~ 16 m and a magnetic susceptibility of 10−4 buried at a depth of 40 m. A UAS flying at an altitude of 50 or 2 m AGL would require the radius to be 11 or 5 m, respectively. A demonstration survey was performed using the SkyLance rotary-wing UAS instrumented with a cesium vapour magnetometer in Nash Creek, New Brunswick, Canada. The UAS flew over a zinc deposit featuring three magnetic anomalies. It acquired repeatable data that compared well with upward continuation maps of ground magnetic data. Dykes or faults that are dipping eastward at 25° and are approximately 1.5 m wide fit the observed response of the three anomalies captured on the UAS magnetic data.
[en] Imaging below the basalt for hydrocarbon exploration is a global problem because of poor penetration and significant loss of seismic energy due to scattering, attenuation, absorption and mode-conversion when the seismic waves encounter a highly heterogeneous and rugose basalt layer. The conventional (short offset) seismic data acquisition, processing and modeling techniques adopted by the oil industry generally fails to image hydrocarbon-bearing sub-trappean Mesozoic sediments hidden below the basalt and is considered as a serious problem for hydrocarbon exploration in the world. To overcome this difficulty of sub-basalt imaging, we have generated dense synthetic seismic data with the help of elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling using staggered-grid scheme for the model derived from ray-trace inversion using sparse wide-angle seismic data acquired along Sinor–Valod profile in the Deccan Volcanic Province of India. The full-wave synthetic seismic data generated have been processed and imaged using conventional seismic data processing technique with Kirchhoff pre-stack time and depth migrations. The seismic image obtained correlates with all the structural features of the model obtained through ray-trace inversion of wide-angle seismic data, validating the effectiveness of robust elastic finite-difference full-wave modeling approach for imaging below thick basalts. Using the full-wave modeling also allows us to decipher small-scale heterogeneities imposed in the model as a measure of the rugose basalt interfaces, which could not be dealt with ray-trace inversion. Furthermore, we were able to accurately image thin low-velocity hydrocarbon-bearing Mesozoic sediments sandwiched between and hidden below two thick sequences of high-velocity basalt layers lying above the basement.
[en] In the solid/liquid and liquid/solid scenarios, for the cases in which the P and S reflected waves are represented by complex amplitudes, we give the closed formulas for the Goos–Hänchen phase from which we can then determine the lateral displacements. We compare the results of the analysis done using the Zoeppritz equations with the calculations which appear in optics. We also discuss under which circumstances the plane wave analysis is valid and what happens for critical incidence, where divergences appear. For the liquid/solid interface, the incidence angles maximizing the lateral displacement are given as solutions of a polynomial equation.
[en] The fate of a subducted slab is a key ingredient in the context of plate tectonics, yet it remains enigmatic especially in terms of its crustal component. In this study, our efforts are devoted to resolve slab-related structures in the mid-mantle below eastern Indonesia, the Izu–Bonin region, and the Peru area by employing seismic array analysing techniques on high-frequency waveform data from F-net in Japan and the Alaska regional network and the USArray in North America. A pronounced arrival after the direct P wave is observed in the recordings of four deep earthquakes (depths greater than 400 km) from three subduction systems including the Philippines, the Izu–Bonin, and the Peru. This later arrival displays a slightly lower slowness compared to the direct P wave and its back-azimuth deviates somewhat from the great-circle direction. We explain it as an S-to-P conversion at a deep scatterer below the sources in the source region. In total, five scatterers are seen at depths ranging from ~930 to 1500 km. Those scatterers appear to be characterised by an ~7 km-thick low-velocity layer compared to the ambient mantle. Combined evidence from published mineral physical analysis suggests that past subducted oceanic crust, possibly fragmented, is most likely responsible for these thin-layer compositional heterogeneities trapped in the mid-mantle beneath the study regions. Our observations give a clue to the potential fate of subducted oceanic crust.
[en] We present a seismological and hydrodynamic investigation of the earthquake of 13 April 1923 at Ust’-Kamchatsk, Northern Kamchatka, which generated a more powerful and damaging tsunami than the larger event of 03 February 1923, thus qualifying as a so-called “tsunami earthquake”. On the basis of modern relocations, we suggest that it took place outside the fault area of the mainshock, across the oblique Pacific-North America plate boundary, a model confirmed by a limited dataset of mantle waves, which also confirms the slow nature of the source, characteristic of tsunami earthquakes. However, numerical simulations for a number of legitimate seismic models fail to reproduce the sharply peaked distribution of tsunami wave amplitudes reported in the literature. By contrast, we can reproduce the distribution of reported wave amplitudes using an underwater landslide as a source of the tsunami, itself triggered by the earthquake inside the Kamchatskiy Bight.
[en] Imaging shallow subsurface density structure is an important goal in a variety of applications, from hydrogeology to seismic and volcanic hazard assessment. We assess the effectiveness of surface and subsurface gravity measurements in estimating the density structure of a well-characterized rock volume: the mesa (a small, flat-topped plateau) upon which the town of Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA is located. Our gravity measurements were made on the mesa surface above a horizontal tunnel and underground, within the tunnel. We demonstrate that, in the absence of other geophysical data such as seismic data or muon attenuation, subsurface (tunnel) gravity measurements are critical to accurately recovering geologic structure. Without the tunnel data, our resolution is limited to roughly the surface gravity station spacing, but by including the tunnel data we can resolve structure to a depth of ~ 10 times the surface gravity station spacing. Densities were obtained using both forward modeling and a Bayesian inverse modeling approach, incorporating relevant constraints from geologic observations. We find that Bayesian inversion, with geologically relevant prior, is a superior approach to the forward models in terms of both robustness and efficiency and correctly predicts the orientation and elevation of important geologic features.
[en] The load–unload response ratio (LURR) method is proposed to measure the damage extent of source media and the criticality of earthquake. Before the occurrence of a large earthquake, anomalous increase in the time series of LURR within the certain temporal and spatial windows has often been observed. In this paper, a dimensional analysis technique is devised to evaluate quantitatively the magnitude and time of the ensuing large earthquake within the anomalous areas derived from the LURR method. Based on the π-theorem, two dimensionless quantities associated with the earthquake time and magnitude are derived from five parameters (i.e. the seismic energy (ES), the average seismic energy (EW), the maximum value of LURR’s seismogenic integral (IPP), the thickness of seismogenic zone (h), the time interval from IPP to earthquake (T2), and the shear strain rate ()). The statistical relationships between the earthquakes and the two dimensionless quantities are derived by testing the seismic data of the 50 events of M4.5 ~ 8.1 occurred in China since 1976. In earthquake prediction, the LURR method is used to detect the areas with anomalous high LURR values, and then our dimensional analysis technique is applied to assess the optimal critical region, magnitude, and time of the ensuing event, when its seismogenic integral is peaked (IPP). As study examples, we applied this approach to study four large events, namely the 2012 MS5.3 Hami, 2015 MS5.8 Alashan, 2015 MS8.1 Nepal earthquakes, and the 2013 Songyuan earthquake swam. Results show that the predicted location, time, and magnitude correlate well with the actual events. This provides evidence that the dimensional analysis technique may be a useful tool to augment current predictive power of the traditional LURR approach.