Results 1 - 10 of 16389
Results 1 - 10 of 16389. Search took: 0.071 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) turbulence theory, often employed satisfactorily in astrophysical applications, has often focused on parameter ranges that imply nearly equal values of kinetic and magnetic energies and length scales. However, MHD flow may have disparity magnetic Prandtl number, dissimilar kinetic and magnetic Reynolds number, different kinetic and magnetic outer length scales, and strong anisotropy. Here a phenomenology for such ''non-equipartitioned'' MHD flow is discussed. Two conditions are proposed for a MHD flow to transition to strong turbulent flow, extensions of (1) Taylor's constant flux in an inertial range, and (2) Kolmogorov's scale separation between the large and small scale boundaries of an inertial range. For this analysis, the detailed information on turbulence structure is not needed. These two conditions for MHD transition are expected to provide consistent predictions and should be applicable to anisotropic MHD flows, after the length scales are replaced by their corresponding perpendicular components. Second, it is stressed that the dynamics and anisotropy of MHD fluctuations is controlled by the relative strength between the straining effects between eddies of similar size and the sweeping action by the large-eddies, or propagation effect of the large-scale magnetic fields, on the small scales, and analysis of this balance in principle also requires consideration of non-equipartition effects
[en] The snowflake magnetic configuration is characterized by the presence of two closely spaced poloidal field nulls that create a characteristic hexagonal (reminiscent of a snowflake) separatrix structure. The magnetic field properties and the plasma behaviour in the snowflake are determined by the simultaneous action of both nulls, this generating a lot of interesting physics, as well as providing a chance for improving divertor performance. One of the most interesting effects of the snowflake geometry is the heat flux sharing between multiple divertor channels. The authors summarise experimental results obtained with the snowflake configuration on several tokamaks. Wherever possible, relation to the existing theoretical models is described. Divertor concepts utilizing the properties of a snowflake configuration are briefly discussed
[en] Third-order spectral analysis, in particular, the auto bicoherence, was applied to probe signals from high-harmonic fast-wave heating experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Strong evidence was found for parametric decay of the 30 MHz radio-frequency (RF) pump wave, with a low-frequency daughter wave at 2.7 MHz, the local majority-ion cyclotron frequency. The primary decay modes have auto bicoherence values around 0.85, very close to the theoretical value of one, which corresponds to total phase coherence with the pump wave. The threshold RF pump power for onset of parametric decay was found to be between 200 kW and 400 kW.
[en] Multiple ion acceleration mechanisms can occur when an ultrathin foil is irradiated with an intense laser pulse, with the dominant mechanism changing over the course of the interaction. Measurement of the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of energetic protons is used to investigate the transition from radiation pressure acceleration to transparency-driven processes. It is shown numerically that radiation pressure drives an increased expansion of the target ions within the spatial extent of the laser focal spot, which induces a radial deflection of relatively low energy sheath-accelerated protons to form an annular distribution. Through variation of the target foil thickness, the opening angle of the ring is shown to be correlated to the point in time transparency occurs during the interaction and is maximized when it occurs at the peak of the laser intensity profile. Corresponding experimental measurements of the ring size variation with target thickness exhibit the same trends and provide insight into the intra-pulse laser-plasma evolution.
[en] Visible Cherenkov radiation can offer a method of the measurement of the velocity of charged particles. The angular width of the radiation is important since it determines the resolution of the velocity measurement. In this article, the angular width of Cherenkov radiation with inclusion of multiple scattering is calculated through the path-integral method, and the analytical expressions are presented. The condition that multiple scattering processes dominate the angular distribution is obtained.
[en] This paper deals with the modelling of the convection processes in metal–halide lamp discharges (HgDyI_3). For this, we realized a 3D model, a steady, direct current powered and time-depending model for the solution of conservation equations relative to mass, momentum, and energy. After validation, this model was applied to the study of the effect of some parameters that have appeared on major transport phenomena of mass and energy in studying the lamp. Indeed, the electric current, the atomic ratio (Hg/Dy), and the effect of the convective transport have been studied.
[en] The variational formulations of guiding-center Vlasov-Maxwell theory based on Lagrange, Euler, and Euler-Poincaré variational principles are presented. Each variational principle yields a different approach to deriving guiding-center polarization and magnetization effects into the guiding-center Maxwell equations. The conservation laws of energy, momentum, and angular momentum are also derived by Noether method, where the guiding-center stress tensor is now shown to be explicitly symmetric.
[en] The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves propagating in an elliptical plasma waveguide with a cold collisionless unmagnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is studied analytically. The frequency spectrum of the hybrid waves and the growth rate for excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam (TAREEB) is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, geometrical dimensions, plasma frequency, accelerating voltage, and current density of TAREEB on the growth rate and frequency spectra of the waveguide will be investigated.
[en] We introduce a new quasi 1-D implosion experimental platform at the National Ignition Facility designed to validate physics models as well as to study various Inertial Confinement Fusion aspects such as implosion symmetry, convergence, hydrodynamic instabilities, and shock timing. The platform has been developed to maintain shell sphericity throughout the compression phase and produce a round hot core at stagnation. This platform utilizes a 2-shock 1 MJ pulse with 340 TW peak power in a near-vacuum Au Hohlraum and a CH ablator capsule uniformly doped with 1% Si. We have performed several inflight radiography, symmetry capsule, and shock timing experiments in order to tune the symmetry of the capsule to near round throughout several epochs of the implosion. Adjusting the relative powers of the inner and outer cones of beams has allowed us to control the drive at the poles and equator of the capsule, thus providing the mechanism to achieve a spherical capsule convergence. Details and results of the tuning experiments are described.
[en] Betatron radiation in strongly magnetized plasma is investigated by two dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The results show that the betatron radiation in magnetized plasmas is strongly enhanced and is more collimated compared to that in unmagnetized plasma. Single particle model analysis shows that the frequency and the amplitude of the electrons's betatron oscillation are strongly influenced by the axial external magnetic field and the axial self-generated magnetic field. And the 2D PIC simulation shows that the axial magnetic field is actually induced by the external magnetic field and tends to increase the betatron frequency. By disturbing the perturbation of the plasma density in the laser-produced channel, the hosing instability is also suppressed, which results in a better angular distribution and a better symmetry of the betatron radiation.