Results 1 - 10 of 24
Results 1 - 10 of 24. Search took: 0.024 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] In the present paper, solid-liquid extraction behaviour of RE(III) (RE = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy and Yb) by the use of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN, HL) as an extractant in paraffin (m.p. 48 ∼ 50o) has been investigated at 80 ± 0.07o. The effect of equilibrium time, pH of aqueous phase, concentration of extractant in paraffin and solid diluent as well as buffer solution used on the extraction efficiency of RE(III) have been discussed. (author)
[en] A reliable and very sensitive procedure for the determination of trace levels of molybdenum in seawater is proposed. The complex of molybdenum with 8-hydroxyquinoline (Oxine) is analyzed by cathodic stripping square-wave voltammetry based on the adsorption collection onto a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). This procedure of molybdenum determination was found to be more favorable than differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry because of inherently faster scan rate and much better linearity obtained through the one-peak (instead of one-of-two peaks) calibration. The variation of polarographic peak and peak current with a pH, adsorption time, adsorption potential, and some instrumental parameters such as scan rate and pulse height were optimized. The alteration of polarographic wave and its likely mechanism are also discussed. The relationship between peak current and molybdenum concentration is linear up to 150 μg l-1. Under the optimal analytical conditions, the determination limit of 0.5 μg l-1 Mo was reached after 60 s of the stirred collection. The estimated detection limit is better than 0.1 μg l-1 of Mo. The applicability of this method to the analysis of seawater was assessed by the determination of molybdenum in two certified reference seawater samples (CASS-2 and NASS-2) and the comparison of the analytical results for real seawater samples (study on a vertical distribution of Mo in the seawater column) with the results obtained by Zeeman-corrected electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (Zeeman ETAAS). A good agreement between two used methods of molybdenum determination was obtained
[en] A recently developed atmospheric pressure ionization source, a distributed plasma ionization source (DPIS), was characterized and compared to commonly used atmospheric pressure ionization sources with both mass spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry. The source consisted of two electrodes of different sizes separated by a thin dielectric. Application of a high RF voltage across the electrodes generated plasma in air yielding both positive and negative ions depending on the polarity of the applied potential. These reactant ions subsequently ionized the analyte vapors. The reactant ions generated were similar to those created in a conventional point-to-plane corona discharge ion source. The positive reactant ions generated by the source were mass identified as being solvated protons of general formula (H2O)nH+ with (H2O)2H+ as the most abundant reactant ion. The negative reactant ions produced were mass identified primarily as CO3-, NO3-, NO2-, O3- and O2- of various relative intensities. The predominant ion and relative ion ratios varied depending upon source construction and supporting gas flow rates. A few compounds including drugs, explosives and environmental pollutants were selected to evaluate the new ionization source. The source was operated continuously for several months and although deterioration was observed visually, the source continued to produce ions at a rate similar that of the initial conditions. The results indicated that the DPIS may have a longer operating life than a conventional corona discharge.
[en] A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead. Multiple vacuum box locations may be set-up to supply several ICP-MS units with purified sample fractions such that a high sample throughput may be achieved, while still allowing for rapid measurement of short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry.
[en] A sensitive stripping voltammetric procedure for trace measurement of thorium, based on the catalytic-adsorptive peak of the thorium-cupferron complex, is reported. Optimal experimental conditions include the use of 1mM BES buffer solution (pH 5.5), containing 20μM cupferron, an accumulation potential of -0.80 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), and a differential pulse potential scan. The resulting stripping procedure offers improved sensitivity over a previous stripping scheme for thorium. The limit of detection after 5 min preconcentration is 50 ng/1. (2 x 10-10 M), the response is linear up to 8 x 10-8 M, and the relative standard deviation at the 2.1 x 10-8 M level is 4.4%. Possible interferences are evaluated. (Author)
[en] Thorium and the lanthanides are extracted by α-(sym-dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxy)acetic acid and its analogues in different pH ranges. At pH 4.5, Th is quantitatively extracted by the crown ether carboxylic acids into chloroform whereas the extraction of the lanthanides is negligible. Separation of Th from the lanthanides can be achieved by solvent extraction under this condition. The extraction does not require specific counteranions and is reversible with respect to pH. Trace amounts of Th in water can be quantitatively recovered using this extraction system for neutron activation analysis. The nature of the extracted Th complex and the mechanism of extraction are discussed. (author)
[en] Phenylphosphonic acid was imbedded into the matrix of the polyurethane foam during the fabrication process of the polymer. The extraction of uranium by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam and blank polyurethane (i.e., foam without phosphonic acid functional groups) was investigated. Phosphonic acid-imbedded foam showed superior extractability of uranium from solutions with pH = 7.0 ± 1.5 over a wide range of temperatures. (author)
[en] Addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) to the fluorescent binary complex of thorium and 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) forms the Th-DTPA-HQS fluorescent ternary complex. The formation of this ternary complex enhances the selectivity for the determination of thorium. Excesses of DTPA and HQS are used as reagents in flow-injection analysis to detect thorium. The excess DTPA effectively masks potentially interfering ions by preventing the formation of fluorescent binary metal-HQS complexes. The presence of lanthanides and transition metals does not interfere with the thorium detection with this method (the ratio of molar intensity for metals to molar intensity for thorium is < 0.3% with the exception of lutetium, for which molar intensity ratio is 1.34%). The detection limit for thorium is 12 ng ml-1. (author)
[en] Inductively coupled Argon Plasma Spectrometry is used for the indirect determination of sulphate in iron(III) chloride leach solution of Elliot Lake uranium ores via addition of a known amount of barium ions and analyzing for excess of barium. The ore contains ∼ 7 wt% pyrite, FeS2, as the major mineral which oxidizes to generate sulphate during leaching with Fe(III). The effects of pH, the concentrations of Fe(III) and chloride ions and for presence of ethanol in the test samples on the accuracy of analysis are studied. It is found that unlike the Rhodizonate method, removal of iron(III) from or addition of ethanol to the test sample prior to analysis are not required. Linear calibration curves are obtained. (author)