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[en] Highlights: • Material Flows assessment of a Material Recovery Facility has been realized. • Performance Indicators for a generic MRF have been proposed. • A Dashboard has been utilized to measure the facility performance. • Experimental values of incoming waste and output products composition are reported. - Abstract: Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of the recycling companies. The evaluation of the indicators led to the decision to modify the layout to improve the interception of some polymers for which the performance indicators were poor. In particular, two additional optical sorters have to be inserted to increase the yield indicator and to the overall performance of the facility. Definitely, the results of the work allowed to: increase the yield and purity of products’ flows; ensure the compliance of waste flows; increase the workability.
[en] Highlights: • Indium is leached with the non-crushing method that simplifies the leaching process and reduces the leaching of impurities. • With enhancement of ultrasonic wave, indium containing in waste LCDs can be leached efficiently even at room temperature. • The mechanism of influence of ultrasonic waves is analyzed combining with the micro-structure of ITO-glass. - Abstract: The tremendous amount of end-of-life liquid crystal displays (LCDs) has become one of the prominent sources of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in recent years. Despite the necessity of safe treatment, recycling indium is also a focus of waste LCD treatment because of the scarcity of indium. Based on the analyses of the structure of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) glass, crushing is demonstrated to be not required. In the present research, a complete non-crushing leaching method was firstly adopted to recycle indium from waste LCDs, and the ultrasonic waves was applied in the leaching process. The results demonstrated that indium can be leached efficiently with even a low concentration of chloride acid (HCl) without extra heating. About 96.80% can be recovered in 60 mins, when the ITO glass was leached by 0.8 M HCl with an enhancement of 300 W ultrasonic waves. The indium leaching process is abridged free from crushing, and proves to be of higher efficiency. In addition, the ultrasonic wave influence on leaching process was also explained combing with micron-scale structure of ITO glass.
[en] Highlights: • A model to evaluate the service area size of a waste recovery chain is proposed. • A recovery performance score is given per waste source. •The areas to be collected in priority are the sources with the highest score. • The score depends on the source's characteristics and the recovery technology. •Replacing anaerobic digestion by composting decreases the facility's spatial scale. - Abstract: Waste recovery is an integrated part of municipal solid waste management systems but its strategic planning is still challenging. In particular, the service area size of facilities is a sensitive issue since its calculation depends on various factors related to treatment technologies (output products) and territorial features (sources waste production and location). This work presents a systemic approach for the estimation of a chain's service area size, based on a balance between costs and recovery profits. The model assigns a recovery performance value to each source, which can be positive, neutral or negative. If it is positive, the source should be included in the facility's service area. Applied to the case of Montreal for food waste recovery by anaerobic digestion, the approach showed that at most 23 out of the 30 districts should be included in the service area, depending on the indicator, which represents around 127,000 t of waste recovered/year. Due to the systemic approach, these districts were not necessarily the closest to the facility. Moreover, for the Montreal case, changing the facility's location did not have a great influence on the optimal service area size, showing that the distance to the facility was not a decisive factor at this scale. However, replacing anaerobic digestion by a composting plant reduced the break-even transport distances and, thus, the number of sources worth collecting (around 68,500 t/year). In this way, the methodology, applied to different management strategies, gave a sense of the spatial dynamics involved in the recovery chain's design. The map of optimal supply obtained could be used to further analyse the feasibility of multi-site and/or multi-technology systems for the territory considered.
[en] Highlights: • Consumption and future demand of critical metals were reviewed. • The global WEEE generation was summarized. •The global WEEE management and recycling were reviewed. • The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to metal recycling. • WEEE recycling can potentially relieve the supply risk of critical metals. - Abstract: New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth’s crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply. This paper focuses on the sustainable supply of typical critical metals (indium, rare earth elements (REEs), lithium, cobalt and precious metals) through recycling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To illuminate this issue, the production, consumption, expected future demand, current recycling situation of critical metals, WEEE management and their recycling have been reviewed. We find that the demand of indium, REEs, lithium and cobalt in EEE will continuously increasing, while precious metals are decreasing because of new substitutions with less or even without precious metals. Although the generation of WEEE in 2014 was about 41.9 million tons (Mt), just about 15% (6.5 Mt) was treated environmentally. The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to relieving the supply risk of critical metals. Furthermore, due to the widespread use in low concentrations, such as indium, their recycling is not just technological problem, but economic feasibility is. Finally, relevant recommendations are point out to address these issues.
[en] Highlights: • High EVA CuCl was recycled with 88.7% recovery from waste Cu craps. • The recycled CuCl displayed regular tetrahedron-like morphology. • The evolution mechanism of the recycled CuCl crystal was proposed. • The corresponding discharge capacity in LIB was 171.8 mAh/g after 50 cycles. • The results shed a new light on resource recovery and environmental protection. - Abstract: The wide applications of metal Cu inevitably resulted in a large quantity of waste Cu materials. In order to recover the useful Cu under the mild conditions and reduce the environmental emission, waste Cu scraps were recycled in the form of CuCl powders with high economic value added (EVA) via the facile hydrothermal route. The recycled CuCl powders were characterized in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results suggested that the recycled CuCl powders consisted of many regular tetrahedron-like micro-particles. Furthermore, in order to reduce the cost of lithium ion battery (LIB) anode and build the connection of waste Cu scraps and LIB, the recycled CuCl powders were evaluated as the anode active material of LIB. As expected, the reversible discharge capacity was about 171.8 mAh/g at 2.0 C even after 50 cycles, implying the satisfactory cycle stability. Clearly, the satisfactory results may open a new avenue to develop the circular economy and the sustainable energy industry, which would be very important in terms of both the resource recovery and the environmental protection.
[en] Highlights: • Microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) converts fish waste to hydrochar. • MHTC of fish waste at ∼200 °C for ∼119 min produces maximal hydrochar yield (∼34%). • Based on MHTC conditions, hydrochar has ∼25–57% atomic carbon, and ∼20–28% ash. • Microsphere-rich hydrochar has energy value that ranges from 19 to 24.5 MJ/kg. • MHTC can convert pure non-lignocellulosic fish waste to good quality hydrochar. - Abstract: Fish processing results in large amounts of solid and liquid wastes that are unsustainably dumped into oceans and landfills. Alternative sustainable technologies that completely utilize seafood wastes are needed. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) that converts moisture-rich biomass into hydrochar is mostly employed for pure lignocellulosic biowaste. However, the suitability of HTC for pure non-lignocellulosic waste is unknown. Here, for the first time, a response surface design guided optimization of microwave hydrothermal carbonization (MHTC) process parameters, holding temperature (150–210 °C) and time (90–120 min), showed that a temperature of approximately 200 °C and a time of approximately 119 min yielded maximal hydrochar (∼34%). The atomic carbon and ash content, and calorific value of hydrochar were approximately 25–57%, 20–28%, and 19–24.5 MJ/kg respectively, depending on the MHTC operating conditions. Taken together, these results confirm that MHTC produces hydrochar from fish waste of quality comparable to one produced from certain lignocellulosic, sewage and municipal wastes. Therefore, this strategy presents an exciting alternative technology that can be used either independently or in combination with other valorization techniques to completely utilize fish wastes irrespective of their quality.
[en] Waste characterization is the first step to any successful waste management policy. In this paper, the characterization and the trend of solid waste generated in University of Lagos, Nigeria was carried out using ASTM (D5231-92) and Resource Conservation Reservation Authority RCRA Waste Sampling Draft Technical Guidance methods. The recyclable potential of the waste is very high constituting about 75% of the total waste generated. The estimated average daily solid waste generation in Unilag Akoka campus was estimated to be 32.2 tons. The solid waste characterization was found to be: polythene bags 24% (7.73 tons/day), paper 15% (4.83 tons/day), organic matters 15%, (4.83 tons/day), plastic 9% (2.90 tons/day), inert materials 8% (2.58 tons/day), sanitary 7% (2.25 tons/day), textile 7% (2.25 tons/day), others 6% (1.93 tons/day), leather 4% (1.29 tons/day) metals 3% (0.97 tons/day), glass 2% (0.64 tons/day) and e-waste 0% (0.0 tons/day). The volume and distribution of polythene bags generated on campus had a positive significant statistical correlation with the distribution of commercial and academic structures on campus. Waste management options to optimize reuse, recycling and reduce waste generation were discussed.
[en] Highlights: • Co-composting OFMSW and digestate results in improved composting rates. • Reactors with 20–40% (%ww) digestate had the best performance. •Stability time was 30–36% shorter in the reactors with 20–40% digestate (%ww). •Inhibition at high digestate levels probably due to ammonia. • TAN from the digestate may have improved carbon removal rates. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion (AD) has gained a significant role in municipal solid waste management, but managing a high volume of digestate is one of the challenges with AD technology. One option is to mix digestate with fresh and/or stabilized organic waste and then feed to the composting process. In this study, the effect of co-composting anaerobic digestate (in different quantities) on a composting process was investigated. The digestate was prepared in a pilot-scale 500 L high solids dry anaerobic digester and composting was completed in eight 25 L reactors with different ratios of digestate to fresh feedstock from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). The digestate constituted 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 75, or 100% (wet mass) of the feedstock. The co-composting experiment was conducted in two phases: active aeration and curing. Monitored parameters included: process temperature, aeration rate, oxygen concentration of the outlet gas, mass changes, total solids, organic matter, pH, and electrical conductivity. In addition, respirometry, C:N ratio, ammonium to nitrate ratio, and Solvita® tests were used to quantify stability and maturity end points. The results showed that the addition of digestate to the OFMSW increased composting reaction rates in all cases, with peak performance occurring within the ratio of 20–40% of digestate addition on a wet weight basis. Reactor performance may have been influenced by the high total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) levels in the digestate. Composting rates increased as TAN levels increased up to 5000 TAN mg kg−1 DM; however, TAN may have become inhibitory at higher levels.
[en] Highlights: • An environmental friendly animal manure waste treatment scheme was proposed. • Ammonia was removed and recovered from manure waste in the form of struvite. • Horse manure waste gasification was successfully conducted in a 10 kW gasifier. • Gasifier produces comparable or higher heating value of syngas as other feedstocks. • The proposed scheme is financially superior to pure gasification and incineration. - Abstract: Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10 kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9 MJ/(N m3). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable.
[en] Highlights: • Mixed plastics in e-waste are separated with a solvent extraction method. • Recovery procedure obtained an acceptable recovery rate with high purity. • The recovered plastics are greatly energy-saving compared with virgin polymers. • Cost-saving can be potentially achieved for specific composition of plastics. - Abstract: The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics’ purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts.