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[en] In this paper, we present new Lagrangian discontinuous Galerkin (DG) hydrodynamic methods for compressible flows on unstructured meshes in axisymmetric coordinates. The physical evolution equations for the specific volume, velocity, and specific total energy are discretized using a modal DG method with linear Taylor series polynomials. Two different approaches are used to discretize the evolution equations – the first one is the true volume approach and the second one is the area-weighted approach. For the true volume approach, the DG equations are derived using the true 3D volume that is consistent with the geometry conservation law (GCL). The Riemann velocity at the nodes on the surface of the element, and the corresponding surface forces, are calculated by solving a multidirectional approximate Riemann problem using surfaces areas for axisymmetric coordinates. This true volume approach conserves mass, momentum, and total energy and satisfies the GCL. However, it can not preserve spherical symmetry on an equal-angle polar grid with 1D radial flows. For the area-weighted approach, the DG equations are based on the 2D Cartesian geometry that is rotated about the axis of symmetry using a single, element average radius. With this approach, the Riemann velocity at the nodes on the surface of the element, and the corresponding surface forces, are calculated by solving a multidirectional approximate Riemann problem in 2D Cartesian geometry. This area-weighted approach, in the limit of an infinitesimal mesh size, conserves physical momentum, and physical total energy. The area-weighted approach preserves spherical symmetry on an equal-angle polar grid for 1D radial flows, but it does not satisfy the GCL. Finally, a suite of test problems are calculated to demonstrate stable mesh motion, the expected second order accuracy of these methods, and that the new area-weighted DG method preserves spherical symmetry on 1D radial flow problems with equal-angle polar meshes.
[en] The edge viscosity of Caramana, Shashkov and Whalen is known to fail on the Noh problem in an initially rectangular grid. In this paper, we present a simple change that significantly improves the behavior in that case. We also show that added energy exchange between cells improves the symmetry of both edge viscosity and the tensor viscosity of Campbell and Shashkov. Finally, as suggested by Noh, this addition also reduces the wall heating effect.
[en] In this paper, we extended the analytical level set method [1, 2] for identifying a piece-wisely heterogeneous (zonation) binary system to the case with an arbitrary number of materials with unknown material properties. In the developed level set approach, starting from an initial guess, the material interfaces are propagated through iterations such that the residuals between the simulated and observed state variables (hydraulic head) is minimized. We derived an expression for the propagation velocity of the interface between any two materials, which is related to the permeability contrast between the materials on two sides of the interface, the sensitivity of the head to permeability, and the head residual. We also formulated an expression for updating the permeability of all materials, which is consistent with the steepest descent of the objective function. The developed approach has been demonstrated through many examples, ranging from totally synthetic cases to a case where the flow conditions are representative of a groundwater contaminant site at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These examples indicate that the level set method can successfully identify zonation structures, even if the number of materials in the model domain is not exactly known in advance. Although the evolution of the material zonation depends on the initial guess field, inverse modeling runs starting with different initial guesses fields may converge to the similar final zonation structure. These examples also suggest that identifying interfaces of spatially distributed heterogeneities is more important than estimating their permeability values.
[en] Here in this work we combine the dual domain material point method with molecular dynamics in an attempt to create a multiscale numerical method to simulate materials undergoing large deformations with high strain rates. In these types of problems, the material is often in a thermodynamically nonequilibrium state, and conventional constitutive relations or equations of state are often not available. In this method, the closure quantities, such as stress, at each material point are calculated from a molecular dynamics simulation of a group of atoms surrounding the material point. Rather than restricting the multiscale simulation in a small spatial region, such as phase interfaces, or crack tips, this multiscale method can be used to consider nonequilibrium thermodynamic effects in a macroscopic domain. This method takes the advantage that the material points only communicate with mesh nodes, not among themselves; therefore molecular dynamics simulations for material points can be performed independently in parallel. The dual domain material point method is chosen for this multiscale method because it can be used in history dependent problems with large deformation without generating numerical noise as material points move across cells, and also because of its convergence and conservation properties. In conclusion, to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of this method, we compare the results of a shock wave propagation in a cerium crystal calculated using the direct molecular dynamics simulation with the results from this combined multiscale calculation.
[en] Efficiently performing predictive studies of irradiated particle-laden turbulent flows has the potential of providing significant contributions towards better understanding and optimizing, for example, concentrated solar power systems. As there are many uncertainties inherent in such flows, conducting uncertainty quantification analyses is fundamental to improve the predictive capabilities of the numerical simulations. For largescale, multi-physics problems exhibiting high-dimensional uncertainty, characterizing the stochastic solution presents a significant computational challenge as many methods require a large number of high-fidelity, forward model solves. This requirement results in the need for a possibly infeasible number of simulations when a typical converged high-fidelity simulation requires intensive computational resources. To reduce the cost of quantifying high-dimensional uncertainties, we investigate the application of a non-intrusive, bi-fidelity approximation to estimate statistics of quantities of interest associated with an irradiated particle-laden turbulent flow. This method relies on exploiting the low-rank structure of the solution to accelerate the stochastic sampling and approximation processes by means of cheaper-to-run, lower fidelity representations. The application of this bi-fidelity approximation results in accurate estimates of the QoI statistics while requiring a small number of high-fidelity model evaluations. It also enables efficient computation of sensitivity analyses which highlight that epistemic uncertainty plays an important role in the solution of irradiated, particle-laden turbulent flow.
[en] Least-squares Petrov–Galerkin (LSPG) model-reduction techniques such as the Gauss–Newton with Approximated Tensors (GNAT) method have shown promise, as they have generated stable, accurate solutions for large-scale turbulent, compressible flow problems where standard Galerkin techniques have failed. Furthermore, there has been limited comparative analysis of the two approaches. This is due in part to difficulties arising from the fact that Galerkin techniques perform optimal projection associated with residual minimization at the time-continuous level, while LSPG techniques do so at the time-discrete level. This work provides a detailed theoretical and computational comparison of the two techniques for two common classes of time integrators: linear multistep schemes and Runge–Kutta schemes. We present a number of new findings, including conditions under which the LSPG ROM has a time-continuous representation, conditions under which the two techniques are equivalent, and time-discrete error bounds for the two approaches. Perhaps most surprisingly, we demonstrate both theoretically and computationally that decreasing the time step does not necessarily decrease the error for the LSPG ROM; instead, the time step should be ‘matched’ to the spectral content of the reduced basis. In numerical experiments carried out on a turbulent compressible-flow problem with over one million unknowns, we show that increasing the time step to an intermediate value decreases both the error and the simulation time of the LSPG reduced-order model by an order of magnitude.
[en] Nearly all model-reduction techniques project the governing equations onto a linear subspace of the original state space. Such subspaces are typically computed using methods such as balanced truncation, rational interpolation, the reduced-basis method, and (balanced) proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). Unfortunately, restricting the state to evolve in a linear subspace imposes a fundamental limitation to the accuracy of the resulting reduced-order model (ROM). In particular, linear-subspace ROMs can be expected to produce low-dimensional models with high accuracy only if the problem admits a fast decaying Kolmogorov n-width (e.g., diffusion-dominated problems). Unfortunately, many problems of interest exhibit a slowly decaying Kolmogorov n-width (e.g., advection-dominated problems). To address this, we propose a novel framework for projecting dynamical systems onto nonlinear manifolds using minimum-residual formulations at the time-continuous and time-discrete levels; the former leads to manifold Galerkin projection, while the latter leads to manifold least-squares Petrov–Galerkin (LSPG) projection. We perform analyses that provide insight into the relationship between these proposed approaches and classical linear-subspace reduced-order models; we also derive a posteriori discrete-time error bounds for the proposed approaches. In addition, we propose a computationally practical approach for computing the nonlinear manifold, which is based on convolutional autoencoders from deep learning. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability of the method to significantly outperform even the optimal linear-subspace ROM on benchmark advection-dominated problems, thereby demonstrating the method's ability to overcome the intrinsic n-width limitations of linear subspaces.
[en] The fractional Laplacian in , which we write as (–Δ)α/2 with, α ϵ (0, 2) has multiple equivalent characterizations. Furthermore, in bounded domains, boundary conditions must be incorporated in these characterizations in mathematically distinct ways, and there is currently no consensus in the literature as to which definition of the fractional Laplacian in bounded domains is most appropriate for a given application. The Riesz (or integral) definition, for example, admits a nonlocal boundary condition, where the value of a function must be prescribed on the entire exterior of the domain in order to compute its fractional Laplacian. Yet, the spectral definition requires only the standard local boundary condition. These differences, among others, lead us to ask the question: “What is the fractional Laplacian?” Beginning from first principles, we compare several commonly used definitions of the fractional Laplacian theoretically, through their stochastic interpretations as well as their analytical properties. Next, we present quantitative comparisons using a sample of state-of-the-art methods. We discuss recent advances on nonzero boundary conditions and present new methods to discretize such boundary value problems: radial basis function collocation (for the Riesz fractional Laplacian) and nonharmonic lifting (for the spectral fractional Laplacian). In our numerical studies, we aim to compare different definitions on bounded domains using a collection of benchmark problems. We consider the fractional Poisson equation with both zero and nonzero boundary conditions, where the fractional Laplacian is defined according to the Riesz definition, the spectral definition, the directional definition, and the horizon-based nonlocal definition. We verify the accuracy of the numerical methods used in the approximations for each operator, and we focus on identifying differences in the boundary behaviors of solutions to equations posed with these different definitions. Through our efforts, we aim to further engage the research community in open problems and assist practitioners in identifying the most appropriate definition and computational approach to use for their mathematical models in addressing anomalous transport in diverse applications.
[en] Accurate and efficient wave equation modeling is vital for many applications in such as acoustics, electromagnetics, and seismology. However, solving the wave equation in large-scale and highly heterogeneous models is usually computationally expensive because the computational cost is directly proportional to the number of grids in the model. We develop a novel high-order multiscale finite-element method to reduce the computational cost of time-domain acoustic-wave equation numerical modeling by solving the wave equation on a coarse mesh based on the multiscale finite-element theory. In contrast to existing multiscale finite-element methods that use only first-order multiscale basis functions, our new method constructs high-order multiscale basis functions from local elliptic problems which are closely related to the Gauss–Lobatto–Legendre quadrature points in a coarse element. Essentially, these basis functions are not only determined by the order of Legendre polynomials, but also by local medium properties, and therefore can effectively convey the fine-scale information to the coarse-scale solution with high-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that our method can significantly reduce the computation time while maintain high accuracy for wave equation modeling in highly heterogeneous media by solving the corresponding discrete system only on the coarse mesh with the new high-order multiscale basis functions.
[en] Here in this work we develop a set of nonlinear correction equations to enforce a consistent time-implicit emission temperature for the original semi-implicit IMC equations. We present two possible forms of correction equations: one results in a set of non-linear, zero-dimensional, non-negative, explicit correction equations, and the other results in a non-linear, non-negative, Boltzman transport correction equation. The zero-dimensional correction equations adheres to the maximum principle for the material temperature, regardless of frequency-dependence, but does not prevent maximum principle violation in the photon intensity, eventually leading to material overheating. The Boltzman transport correction guarantees adherence to the maximum principle for frequency-independent simulations, at the cost of evaluating a reduced source non-linear Boltzman equation. Finally, we present numerical evidence suggesting that the Boltzman transport correction, in its current form, significantly improves time step limitations but does not guarantee adherence to the maximum principle for frequency-dependent simulations.