Results 1 - 10 of 15433
Results 1 - 10 of 15433. Search took: 0.027 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] We investigated ZnO(0001) single crystals annealed in high vacuum with respect to their magnetic properties and cluster formation tendency after implant-doping with Fe. While metallic Fe cluster formation is suppressed, no evidence for the relevance of the Fe magnetic moment to the observed ferromagnetism was found. The latter along with the cluster suppression is discussed with respect to defects in the ZnO host matrix, since the crystalline quality of the substrates was lowered due to the preparation as observed by x-ray diffraction
[en] A kinetic description for electronic excitation of helium for principal quantum number n ⩽ 4 has been included into a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation utilizing direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) for electron-neutral interactions. The excited electronic levels radiate state-dependent photons with wavelengths from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to visible regimes. Photon wavelengths are chosen according to a Voigt distribution accounting for the natural, pressure, and Doppler broadened linewidths. This method allows for reconstruction of the emission spectrum for a non-thermalized electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and investigation of high energy photon effects on surfaces, specifically photoemission. A parallel plate discharge with a fixed field (i.e. space charge neglected) is used to investigate the effects of including photoemission for a Townsend discharge. When operating at a voltage near the self-sustaining discharge threshold, it is observed that the electron current into the anode is higher when including photoemission from the cathode than without even when accounting for self-absorption from ground state atoms. As a result, the photocurrent has been observed to account for as much as 20% of the total current from the cathode under steady-state conditions.
[en] Herein, we review the remarkable range of modifications to materials properties associated with photoexcitation of the growth surface during physical vapor epitaxy of semiconductors. We concentrate on mechanisms producing measureable, utilizable changes in crystalline perfection, phase, composition, doping, and defect distribution. We outline the relevant physics of different mechanisms, concentrating on those yielding effects orthogonal to the primary growth variables of temperature and atomic or molecular fluxes and document the phenomenological effects reported. Based on experimental observations from a range of semiconductor systems and growth conditions, the primary effects include enhanced anion desorption, molecular dissociation, increased doping efficiency, modification to defect populations and improvements to the crystalline quality of epilayers grown at low temperatures. Future research directions and technological applications are also discussed.
[en] Here, this paper focuses on the multi-dimensional simulation of non-equilibrium plasma generated by nanosecond pulsed discharge in air, at pressure values higher than atmospheric. Voltage profiles and electrode geometry closely match those from a complementary experimental study. Simulations highlight the transition between different post-discharge plasma regimes at increasing pressure and tie the characteristics of the streamers to the electric field distribution in the gap between the electrodes. Results from simulations match experimental observations and qualitatively capture the experimental trend in terms of regime transition pressure and structure of the streamers. As a result, this paper validates a numerical tool that captures the physical and chemical properties of the low-temperature plasma and contributes to expand the understanding of low-temperature plasma ignition processes.
[en] We applied adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) to search for low-energy crystal structures of Fe3S. A number of structures with energies lower than that of the experimentally reported Pnma and I-4 structures have been obtained from our AGA searches. These low-energy structures can be classified as layer-motif and column-motif structures. In the column-motif structures, Fe atoms self-assemble into rods with bcc type of underlying lattice, which are separated by the holes terminated by S atoms. In the layer-motif structures, the bulk Fe is broken into slabs of several layers passivated by S atoms. Magnetic properties calculations showed that the column-motif structures exhibit reasonably high uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. In addition, we examined the effect of Co doping to Fe3S and found magnetic anisotropy can be enhanced through Co doping.
[en] Flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (fp-TRMC) is a versatile, highly sensitive technique for studying the complex photoconductivity of solution, solid, and gas-phase samples. The purpose of this paper is to provide a standard reference work for experimentalists interested in using microwave conductivity methods to study functional electronic materials, describing how to conduct and calibrate these experiments in order to obtain quantitative results. The main focus of the paper is on calculating the calibration factor, K, which is used to connect the measured change in microwave power absorption to the conductance of the sample. We describe the standard analytical formulae that have been used in the past, and compare them to numerical simulations. This comparison shows that the most widely used analytical analysis of fp-TRMC data systematically under-estimates the transient conductivity by ~60%. We suggest a more accurate semi-empirical way of calibrating these experiments. However, we emphasize that the full numerical calculation is necessary to quantify both transient and steady-state conductance for arbitrary sample properties and geometry.
[en] Neuromorphic devices are becoming increasingly appealing as efficient emulators of neural networks used to model real world problems. However, no hardware to date has demonstrated the necessary high accuracy and energy efficiency gain over CMOS in both training via backpropagation and in read via vector matrix multiplication. Such shortcomings are due to device non-idealities, particularly asymmetric conductance tuning in response to uniform voltage pulse inputs. Here, by formulating a general circuit model for capacitive ion-exchange neuromorphic devices, we show that asymmetric nonlinearity in organic electrochemical neuromorphic devices (ENODes) can be suppressed by an appropriately chosen write scheme. Simulations based upon our model suggest that a nonlinear write-selector could reduce the switching voltage and energy, enabling analog tuning via a continuous set of resistance states (100 states) with extremely low switching energy (~170 fJ • µm–2). Furthermore, this work clarifies the pathway to neural algorithm accelerators capable of parallelism during both read and write operations.
[en] The high-throughput search paradigm adopted by the newly established caloric materials consortium—CaloriCool®—with the goal to substantially accelerate discovery and design of novel caloric materials is briefly discussed. Here, we begin with describing material selection criteria based on known properties, which are then followed by heuristic fast estimates, ab initio calculations, all of which has been implemented in a set of automated computational tools and measurements. We also demonstrate how theoretical and computational methods serve as a guide for experimental efforts by considering a representative example from the field of magnetocaloric materials.
[en] Science and technologies based on terahertz frequency electromagnetic radiation (100 GHz–30 THz) have developed rapidly over the last 30 years. For most of the 20th Century, terahertz radiation, then referred to as sub-millimeter wave or far-infrared radiation, was mainly utilized by astronomers and some spectroscopists. Following the development of laser based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the 1980s and 1990s the field of THz science and technology expanded rapidly, to the extent that it now touches many areas from fundamental science to 'real world' applications. For example THz radiation is being used to optimize materials for new solar cells, and may also be a key technology for the next generation of airport security scanners. While the field was emerging it was possible to keep track of all new developments, however now the field has grown so much that it is increasingly difficult to follow the diverse range of new discoveries and applications that are appearing. At this point in time, when the field of THz science and technology is moving from an emerging to a more established and interdisciplinary field, it is apt to present a roadmap to help identify the breadth and future directions of the field. The aim of this roadmap is to present a snapshot of the present state of THz science and technology in 2017, and provide an opinion on the challenges and opportunities that the future holds. To be able to achieve this aim, we have invited a group of international experts to write 18 sections that cover most of the key areas of THz science and technology. We hope that The 2017 Roadmap on THz science and technology will prove to be a useful resource by providing a wide ranging introduction to the capabilities of THz radiation for those outside or just entering the field as well as providing perspective and breadth for those who are well established. Lastly, we also feel that this review should serve as a useful guide for government and funding agencies.
[en] Here, in this work, we present a newly constructed UxOy reaction mechanism that consists of 30 reaction channels (21 of which are reversible channels) for 11 uranium molecular species (including ions). Both the selection of reaction channels and calculation of corresponding rate coefficients is accomplished via a comprehensive literature review and application of basic reaction rate theory. The reaction mechanism is supplemented by a detailed description of oxygen plasma chemistry (19 species and 142 reaction channels) and is used to model an atmospheric laser ablated uranium plume via a 0D (global) model. Finally, the global model is used to analyze the evolution of key uranium molecular species predicted by the reaction mechanism, and the initial stage of formation of uranium oxide species.