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[en] We review two important non-perturbative approaches for extracting the physics of low-dimensional strongly correlated quantum systems. Firstly, we start by providing a comprehensive review of non-Abelian bosonization. This includes an introduction to the basic elements of conformal field theory as applied to systems with a current algebra, and we orient the reader by presenting a number of applications of non-Abelian bosonization to models with large symmetries. We then tie this technique into recent advances in the ability of cold atomic systems to realize complex symme-tries. Secondly, we discuss truncated spectrum methods for the numerical study of systems in one and two dimensions. For one-dimensional systems we provide the reader with considerable insight into the methodology by reviewing canonical applications of the technique to the Ising model (and its variants) and the sine-Gordon model. Following this we review recent work on the development of renormalization groups, both numerical and analytical, that alleviate the effects of truncating the spectrum. Using these technologies, we consider a number of applications to one-dimensional systems: properties of carbon nanotubes, quenches in the Lieb-Liniger model, 1+1D quantum chro-modynamics, as well as Landau-Ginzburg theories. In the final part we move our attention to consider truncated spectrum methods applied to two-dimensional systems. This involves combining truncated spectrum methods with matrix product state algorithms. Lastly, we describe applications of this method to two-dimensional systems of free fermions and the quantum Ising model, including their non-equilibrium dynamics.
[en] Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.
[en] For over 70 years, ferroelectric materials have been one of the central research topics for condensed matter physics and material science, an interest driven both by fundamental science and applications. However, ferroelectric surfaces, the key component of ferroelectric films and nanostructures, still present a significant theoretical and even conceptual challenge. Indeed, stability of ferroelectric phase per se necessitates screening of polarization charge. At surfaces, this can lead to coupling between ferroelectric and semiconducting properties of material, or with surface (electro) chemistry, going well beyond classical models applicable for ferroelectric interfaces. In this paper, we summarize recent studies of surface-screening phenomena in ferroelectrics. We provide a brief overview of the historical understanding of the physics of ferroelectric surfaces, and existing theoretical models that both introduce screening mechanisms and explore the relationship between screening and relevant aspects of ferroelectric functionalities starting from phase stability itself. Given that the majority of ferroelectrics exist in multiple-domain states, we focus on local studies of screening phenomena using scanning probe microscopy techniques. We discuss recent studies of static and dynamic phenomena on ferroelectric surfaces, as well as phenomena observed under lateral transport, light, chemical, and pressure stimuli. Finally, we also note that the need for ionic screening renders polarization switching a coupled physical–electrochemical process and discuss the non-trivial phenomena such as chaotic behavior during domain switching that stem from this.
[en] This paper reviews how nuclear fission is described within nuclear density functional theory. A distinction should be made between spontaneous fission, where half-lives are the main observables and quantum tunnelling the essential concept, and induced fission, where the focus is on fragment properties and explicitly time-dependent approaches are often invoked. Overall, the cornerstone of the density functional theory approach to fission is the energy density functional formalism. The basic tenets of this method, including some well-known tools such as the Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB) theory, effective two-body nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme and Gogny force, finite-temperature extensions and beyond mean-field corrections, are presented succinctly. The energy density functional approach is often combined with the hypothesis that the time-scale of the large amplitude collective motion driving the system to fission is slow compared to typical time-scales of nucleons inside the nucleus. In practice, this hypothesis of adiabaticity is implemented by introducing (a few) collective variables and mapping out the many-body Schrödinger equation into a collective Schrödinger-like equation for the nuclear wave-packet. The region of the collective space where the system transitions from one nucleus to two (or more) fragments defines what are called the scission configurations. The inertia tensor that enters the kinetic energy term of the collective Schrödinger-like equation is one of the most essential ingredients of the theory, since it includes the response of the system to small changes in the collective variables. For this reason, the two main approximations used to compute this inertia tensor, the adiabatic time-dependent HFB and the generator coordinate method, are presented in detail, both in their general formulation and in their most common approximations. The collective inertia tensor enters also the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) formula used to extract spontaneous fission half-lives from multi-dimensional quantum tunnelling probabilities (For the sake of completeness, other approaches to tunnelling based on functional integrals are also briefly discussed, although there are very few applications.) It is also an important component of some of the time-dependent methods that have been used in fission studies. Concerning the latter, both the semi-classical approaches to time-dependent nuclear dynamics and more microscopic theories involving explicit quantum-many-body methods are presented. One of the hallmarks of the microscopic theory of fission is the tremendous amount of computing needed for practical applications. In particular, the successful implementation of the theories presented in this article requires a very precise numerical resolution of the HFB equations for large values of the collective variables. This aspect is often overlooked, and several sections are devoted to discussing the resolution of the HFB equations, especially in the context of very deformed nuclear shapes. In particular, the numerical precision and iterative methods employed to obtain the HFB solution are documented in detail. Finally, a selection of the most recent and representative results obtained for both spontaneous and induced fission is presented, with the goal of emphasizing the coherence of the microscopic approaches employed. In conclusion, although impressive progress has been achieved over the last two decades to understand fission microscopically, much work remains to be done. Several possible lines of research are outlined in the conclusion.
[en] The large Hadron collider (LHC) experiments ATLAS and CMS have established hybrid pixel detectors as the instrument of choice for particle tracking and vertexing in high rate and radiation environments, as they operate close to the LHC interaction points. With the high luminosity-LHC upgrade now in sight, for which the tracking detectors will be completely replaced, new generations of pixel detectors are being devised. They have to address enormous challenges in terms of data throughput and radiation levels, ionizing and non-ionizing, that harm the sensing and readout parts of pixel detectors alike. Advances in microelectronics and microprocessing technologies now enable large scale detector designs with unprecedented performance in measurement precision (space and time), radiation hard sensors and readout chips, hybridization techniques, lightweight supports, and fully monolithic approaches to meet these challenges. In conclusion, this paper reviews the world-wide effort on these developments.
[en] A review is given of the physical properties, composition and crystal structure of intermetallic compounds formed between rare-earth elements and non-magnetic metals, with emphasis on the magnetic properties. Included are the properties of compounds in which the non-rare-earth component is a 4d or 5d transition element. Special consideration is given to the properties of pseudo-binary compounds. Results of magnetisation measurements, neutron diffraction and neutron scattering are discussed together with results derived from NMR, ESR and Moessbauer effect spectroscopy. An evaluation is given of the relevance of the experimental results with respect to the different types of exchange interactions in this class of intermetallics. Special consideration is also given to the influence of crystal field effects on the magnetic properties and, furthermore, to the occurrence of intermediate valences in several of the compounds of Ce, Sm, Eu and Yb. 648 references. (author)
[en] Recent studies on high-Tc superconductors have aroused new interest in tunnelling effects in unconventional superconductors. Unlike in conventional s-wave superconductors, the d-wave pairing state in these materials has an internal phase of the pair potential. The internal phase as a function of the wavevector of the Cooper pairs has a large influence on the electric properties of tunnelling junctions. Important effects of the internal phase on the Josephson current were first predicted theoretically. The idea has been established through several experiments using high-Tc Josephson junctions, which detect -phase shift between the a- and b-axis directions and fractional flux quanta. These results give convincing evidence for d-wave symmetry in high-Tc superconductors. In addition, the existence of new interference effects in the quasiparticle states near surfaces and boundaries has been suggested through theoretical predictions. Experimentally, a large number of tunnelling spectroscopy data showed zero-bias conductance peaks (ZBCPs), the origin of which cannot be explained in terms of the classical concept that a tunnelling conductance spectrum is a phase-insensitive probe of the electronic states. It is clarified theoretically that the observed ZBCPs reflect the formation of zero-energy states on the surface due to the π-phase shift of internal phase in the d-wave pairing symmetry. The formulation developed for tunnelling spectroscopy suggests that tunnelling spectroscopy is essentially phase sensitive. In addition, the formation of the bound states has been shown to have a serious influence on the electrical properties of Josephson junctions. Several anomalous properties including strong enhancement of the Josephson current in the low-temperature region have been predicted theoretically. In this report, recent developments in tunnelling effects on surface bound states in unconventional superconductors are reviewed. (author)
[en] Valence fluctuation phenomena occur in rare-earth compounds in which the proximity of the 4f level to the Fermi energy leads to instabilities of the charge configuration (valence) and/or of the magnetic moment. The experimental results observed in the subset of such systems for which the 4f ions form a lattice with identical valence on each site are reviewed. The discussion includes key thermodynamic experiments, such as susceptibility and lattice constant, and spectroscopic experiments such as XPS and neutron scattering. This is followed by a review of existing theoretical work concerning both the ground states and the isomorphic phase transitions which occur in such compounds; the emphasis is on those aspects which make valence fluctuation phenomena such a challenging many-body problem. 391 references. (author)
[en] The current observational and theoretical status of solar flares as a typical astrophysical problem is reviewed with especial reference to the intense and complex energy release in large flares. Observations and their diagnostic applications are discussed in three broad areas: thermal radiation at temperatures T < approximately 105K; thermal radiation at T > approximately 105K; and non-thermal radiation and particles. Particular emphasis is given to the most recent observational discoveries such as flare γ-rays, interplanetary Langmuir waves, and the ubiquitous association of soft x-ray loops with flares, and also the progress in particle diagnostics of hard x-ray and radio bursts. The theoretical problems of primary energy release are considered in terms of both possible magnetic configuration and in plasma instabilities and the question of achieving the necessary flash power discussed. The credibility of models for the secondary redistribution through the atmosphere of the primary magnetic energy released in terms of conduction, convection, radiation and particle transport is examined. Progress made in the flare problem in the past decade is assessed and some possible reasons why no convincing solution has yet been found are considered. 296 references. (U.K.)
[en] In most of this review it is assumed that the laws of physics are unchanging in space and time and it is discussed how modern developments in elementary particle physics influence one's understanding of the Universe and conversely the possibility that astronomical observations may give information about elementary particle physics. In particular the physics of the early Universe is studied and the role of new particles such as heavy leptons, neutrinos and quarks and the possible relationship of the net baryon number of the Universe to unified models of elementary particle physics is discussed. The role of neutrinos in stellar evolution, particularly in the explosion of supernovae and in the cooling of neutron stars is considered, black holes are discussed, especially in connection with Hawking's discovery that low-mass black holes can emit a thermal distribution of particles which could be of cosmological or astrophysical importance. Finally the evidence that the laws of physics are, in fact, unchanging is discussed and it is concluded that there is no clear case in favour of change. 346 references. (author)