Results 1 - 10 of 5547
Results 1 - 10 of 5547. Search took: 0.026 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] We present the results of the first test plates of the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. This paper focuses on the emission line galaxies (ELG) population targetted from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) photometry. We analyse the success rate, efficiency, redshift distribution, and clustering properties of the targets. From the 9000 spectroscopic redshifts targetted, 4600 have been selected from the DES photometry. The total success rate for redshifts between 0.6 and 1.2 is 71\% and 68\% respectively for a bright and faint, on average more distant, samples including redshifts measured from a single strong emission line. We find a mean redshift of 0.8 and 0.87, with 15 and 13\% of unknown redshifts respectively for the bright and faint samples. In the redshift range 0.6< z<1.2, for the most secure spectroscopic redshifts, the mean redshift for the bright and faint sample is 0.85 and 0.9 respectively. Star contamination is lower than 2\%. We measure a galaxy bias averaged on scales of 1 and 10~Mpc/h of 1.72 \pm 0.1 for the bright sample and of 1.78 \pm 0.12 for the faint sample. The error on the galaxy bias have been obtained propagating the errors in the correlation function to the fitted parameters. This redshift evolution for the galaxy bias is in agreement with theoretical expectations for a galaxy population with MB-5\log h < -21.0. We note that biasing is derived from the galaxy clustering relative to a model for the mass fluctuations. We investigate the quality of the DES photometric redshifts and find that the outlier fraction can be reduced using a comparison between template fitting and neural network, or using a random forest algorithm.
[en] This paper presents optical spectra of the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe at 100, 205, 311, 349 and 578 d post-maximum light, as well as an ultraviolet (UV) spectrum obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at 360 d post-maximum light. We compare these observations with synthetic spectra produced with the radiative transfer code PHOENIX. The day +100 spectrum can be well fitted with models that neglect collisional and radiative data for forbidden lines. Curiously, including these data and recomputing the fit yields a quite similar spectrum, but with different combinations of lines forming some of the stronger features. At day +205 and later epochs, forbidden lines dominate much of the optical spectrum formation; however, our results indicate that recombination, not collisional excitation, is the most influential physical process driving spectrum formation at these late times. Consequently, our synthetic optical and UV spectra at all epochs presented here are formed almost exclusively through recombinationdriven fluorescence. Furthermore, our models suggest that the UV spectrum even as late as day +360 is optically thick and consists of permitted lines from several iron-peak species. These results indicate that the transition to the 'nebular' phase in Type Ia supernovae is complex and highly wavelength dependent.
[en] Carefully accounting for neutrino transport is an essential component of many astrophysical studies. Solving the full transport equation is too expensive for most realistic applications, especially those involving multiple spatial dimensions. For such cases, resorting to approximations is often the only viable option for obtaining solutions. One such approximation, which recently became popular, is the M1 method. It utilizes the system of the lowest two moments of the transport equation and closes the system with an ad hoc closure relation. The accuracy of the M1 solution depends on the quality of the closure. Several closures have been proposed in the literature and have been used in various studies. We carry out an extensive study of these closures by comparing the results of M1 calculations with precise Monte Carlo calculations of the radiation field around spherically symmetric protoneutron star models. We find that no closure performs consistently better or worse than others in all cases. The level of accuracy that a given closure yields depends on the matter configuration, neutrino type and neutrino energy. As a result, given this limitation, the maximum entropy closure by Minerbo on average yields relatively accurate results in the broadest set of cases considered in this work.
[en] Here, we present the first results from applying the spectral inversion technique in the cloudy L dwarf regime. This new framework provides a flexible approach to modelling cloud opacity which can be built incrementally as the data require and improves upon previous retrieval experiments in the brown dwarf regime by allowing for scattering in two-stream radiative transfer. Our first application of the tool to two mid-L dwarfs is able to reproduce their near-infrared spectra far more closely than grid models. Our retrieved thermal, chemical and cloud profiles allow us to estimate Teff = 1796 (+23/(−25)) K and logg = 5.21(+0.05/(−0.08)) for 2MASS J05002100+0330501, and for 2MASSW J2224438-015852 we find Teff = 1723 (+18/(−19)) K and log g = 5.31 (+0.04/(−0.08)), in close agreement with previous empirical estimates. Our best model for both objects includes an optically thick cloud deck which passes τcloud ≥ 1 (looking down) at a pressure of around 5 bar. The temperature at this pressure is too high for silicate species to condense, and we argue that corundum and/or iron clouds are responsible for this cloud opacity. Our retrieved profiles are cooler at depth and warmer at altitude than the forward grid models that we compare, and we argue that some form of heating mechanism may be at work in the upper atmospheres of these L dwarfs. We also identify anomalously high CO abundance in both targets, which does not correlate with the warmth of our upper atmospheres or our choice of cloud model, and find similarly anomalous alkali abundance for one of our targets. For these anomalies they may reflect unrecognized shortcomings in our retrieval model or inaccuracies in our gas phase opacities.
[en] Here, we present results of 2D axisymmetric core-collapse supernova simulations, employing the FORNAX code, of nine progenitor models spanning 12 to 25 M⊙. Four of the models explode with inelastic scattering off electrons and neutrons as well as the many-body correction to neutrino-nucleon scattering opacities. We show that these four models feature sharp Si–O interfaces in their density profiles, and that the corresponding dip in density reduces the accretion rate around the stalled shock and prompts explosion. The non-exploding models lack such a steep feature, highlighting the Si–O interface as one key to explosion. Furthermore, we show that all of the non-exploding models can be nudged to explosion with modest changes to macrophysical inputs, including moderate rotation and perturbations to infall velocities, as well as to microphysical inputs, including reasonable changes to neutrino-nucleon interaction rates, suggesting that all the models are perhaps close to criticality. Exploding models have energies of a few × 1050 erg at the end of our simulation, and are rising, emphasizing the need to continue these simulations over larger grids and for longer times to reproduce the energies seen in nature. Morphology of the explosion contributes to the explosion energy, with more isotropic ejecta producing larger explosion energies. We do not find evidence for the Lepton-number Emission Self-sustained Asymmetry. Finally, we look at proto-neutron star (PNS) properties and explore the role of dimension in our simulations. We find that convection in the PNS produces larger PNS radii as well as greater ‘νμ’ luminosities in 2D compared to 1D.
[en] Absolute spectrophotometry is presented from 1250 A to 4μm within the same aperture in the nuclei of four spiral galaxies. The light distributions within the apertures is often irregular but no positive evidence for internal reddening has been found, except possibly for NGC 3031. The absence of any reddening features could still be consistent with some dust if the extinction curve were not the same as in our Galaxy. The populations of stars of different types has been determined via a simple synthesis technique. The number of hot stars is adequate to photoionize the gas and explain the Balmer emission spectrum. It is argued that ultraviolet spectral features indicate these stars are young main-sequence objects. The mass functions determined from the models are not inconsistent with those seen in the solar neighbourhood. Finally, the application of nuclear energy distributions for K-corrections used with faint galaxy data are briefly discussed. (author)
[en] We investigate the intrinsic properties of a sample of bright (with isotropic equivalent energy Eiso > 1052 erg) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), comparing those with and without radio afterglow. We find that the sample of bursts with no radio afterglows has a significantly shorter mean intrinsic duration of the prompt gamma-ray radiation, and the distribution of this duration is significantly different from those bursts with a radio afterglow. Although the sample with no radio afterglow has on average lower isotropic energy, the lack of radio afterglow does not appear to be a result of simply energetics of the burst, but a reflection of a separate physical phenomenon likely related to the circumburst density profile. We also find a weak correlation between the isotropic gamma-ray energy and intrinsic duration in the sample with no radio afterglow, but not in the sample that have observed radio afterglows. We give possible explanations for why there may exist a sample of GRBs with no radio afterglow depending on whether the radio emission comes from the forward or reverse shock, and why these bursts appear to have intrinsically shorter prompt emission durations. Lastly, we discuss how our results may have implications for progenitor models of GRBs.
[en] The detection in 10 bursts of an optical counterpart emission (i.e. during the prompt GRB phase) that is 10-10000 brighter than the extrapolation of the burst spectrum to optical frequencies suggests a synchrotron self-Compton origin for the GRB emission, synchrotron producing the optical counterpart emission. In this model, the second upscattering of the burst photons yields a prompt GeV-TeV emission, whose brightness depends strongly on an unknown quantity, the peak energy of the primary synchrotron spectrum. Measurements of the optical, gamma-ray, and GeV prompt fluxes can be used to test the synchrotron self-Compton model for GRBs and to determine directly the total radiative output of GRBs. For a set of 29 GRBs with optical counterpart detections, we find that the expected GeV photon flux should correlate with the fluence of the sub-MeV emission and should anticorrelate with the brightness of the optical counterpart, the strength of these correlations decreasing for an increasing width of the synchrotron peak energy distribution. The detection of a GeV prompt emission consistent with the extrapolation of the burst spectrum to higher energies would rule out the synchrotron self-Compton model if the sub-MeV burst emission were very bright and the (intrinsic) optical counterpart were very dim.
[en] Here, we perform a measurement of the mass–richness relation of the redMaPPer galaxy cluster catalogue using weak lensing data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We carefully characterized a broad range of systematic uncertainties, including shear calibration errors, photo-zz biases, dilution by member galaxies, source obscuration, magnification bias, incorrect assumptions about cluster mass profiles, cluster centering, halo triaxiality, and projection effects. We then compare measurements of the lensing signal from two independently-produced shear and photometric redshift catalogues to characterize systematic errors in the lensing signal itself. Using a sample of 5,570 clusters from 0.1 ≤ zz ≤ 0.33, the normalization of our power-law mass vs. λ relation is log10[M200m/h-1 M⊙] = 14.344 ± 0.021 (statistical) ±0.023 (systematic) at a richness λ = 40, a 7 per cent calibration uncertainty, with a power-law index of 1.33+0.09-0.101.33(+0.09/(−0.10)) (1σ). Finally, the detailed systematics characterization in this work renders it the definitive weak lensing mass calibration for SDSS redMaPPer clusters at this time.