Results 1 - 10 of 5930
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[en] To find the optimal coils for stellarators, nonlinear optimization algorithms are applied in existing coil design codes. However, none of these codes have used the information from the second-order derivatives. In this paper, we present a modified Newton method in the recently developed code FOCUS. The Hessian matrix is calculated with analytically derived equations. Its inverse is approximated by a modified Cholesky factorization and applied in the iterative scheme of a classical Newton method. Using this method, FOCUS is able to recover the W7-X modular coils starting from a simple initial guess. Results demonstrate significant advantages.
[en] In this paper, the radial electric field and the ion mean parallel flow are obtained in the helically symmetric experiment stellarator from toroidal flow measurements of C+6 ion at two locations on a flux surface, using the Pfirsch–Schlüter effect. Results from the standard quasi-helically symmetric magnetic configuration are compared with those from the Mirror configuration where the quasi-symmetry is deliberately degraded using auxiliary coils. For similar injected power, the quasi-symmetric configuration is observed to have significantly lower flows while the experimental observations from the Mirror geometry are in better agreement with neoclassical calculations. Finally, indications are that the radial electric field near the core of the quasi-symmetric configuration may be governed by non-neoclassical processes.
[en] During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the 'blow-out regime' have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currently under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. Here, we briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.
[en] We report that gas puff imaging (GPI) observations made in NSTX have revealed two-point spatial correlations of edge and scrape-off layer turbulence in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. A common feature is the occurrence of dipole-like patterns with significant regions of negative correlation. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these dipole patterns may be due to blob-hole pairs. Statistical methods are applied to determine the two-point spatial correlation that results from a model of blob-hole pair formation. It is shown that the model produces dipole correlation patterns that are qualitatively similar to the GPI data in several respects. Effects of the reference location (confined surfaces or scrape-off layer), a superimposed random background, hole velocity and lifetime, and background sheared flows are explored and discussed with respect to experimental observations. Additional analysis of the experimental GPI dataset is performed to further test this blob-hole correlation model. A time delay two-point spatial correlation study did not reveal inward propagation of the negative correlation structures that were postulated to correspond to holes in the data nor did it suggest that the negative correlation structures are due to neutral shadowing. However, tracking of the highest and lowest values (extrema) of the normalized GPI fluctuations shows strong evidence for mean inward propagation of minima and outward propagation of maxima, in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, other properties of the experimentally observed extrema are discussed.
[en] In this article, recent results on crossed-beam energy transfer are presented. Wave-length tuning was used to vary the amount of energy transfer between two beams in a quasi-stationary plasma with carefully controlled conditions. The amount of transfer agreed well with calculations assuming linear ion acoustic waves with amplitudes up to δn/n ≈ 0.015. Increasing the initial probe intensity to access larger ion acoustic wave amplitudes for otherwise fixed conditions yields evidence of saturation. The ability to manipulate a beam’s polarization, which results from the anisotropic nature of the interaction, is revisited; an example is provided to demonstrate how polarization effects in a multibeam situation can dramatically enhance the expected amount of energy transfer.
[en] In this study, observations of divertor plasma detachment in tokamaks are reviewed. Plasma detachment is characterized in terms of transport and dissipation of power, momentum and particle flux along the open field lines from the midplane to the divertor. Asymmetries in detachment onset and other characteristics between the inboard and outboard divertor plasmas is found to be primarily driven by plasma x drifts. The effect of divertor plate geometry and magnetic configuration on divertor detachment is summarized. Control of divertor detachment has progressed with a development of a number of diagnostics to characterize the detached state in real-time. Finally the compatibility of detached divertor operation with high performance core plasmas is examined.
[en] In the last five years, large amounts of high quality experimental data in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) were produced at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). From the NIF data, we have significantly advanced our scientific understanding of the physics of thermonuclear (TN) ignition in ICF and identified the critical physical issues important to achieve ignition, such as implosion energetics, pusher adiabat, tamping effects in fuel confinement, and confinement time. In this article, we will present recently developed TN ignition theory and implosion scaling laws [1, 2] characterizing the thermodynamic properties of the hot spot and the TN ignition metrics at NIF. We compare our theoretical predictions with NIF data with good agreement between theory and experiments. We will also demonstrate the fundamental effects of the pusher adiabat on the energy partition between the cold shell and the hot deuterium-tritium and on the neutron yields of ICF capsules. Applications [3–5] to NIF experiments and physical explanations of the discrepancies among theory, data and simulations will be presented. In our theory, the actual adiabat of the cold DT fuel can be inferred from neutron image data of a burning capsule. With the experimentally inferred hot spot mix, the CH mix in the cold fuel could be estimated, as well as the preheat. Lastly, possible path forwards to reach high yields are discussed.
[en] We show efficient laser driven proton acceleration up to 14 MeV from a 50 μm thick cryogenic hydrogen ribbon. Pulses of the short pulse laser ELFIE at LULI with a pulse length of ≈ 350 fs at an energy of 8 J per pulse are directed onto the target. The results were then compared to proton spectra from metal and plastic foils with different thicknesses and show a similar good performance both in maximum energy as well as in proton number. Thus, this target type is a promising candidate for experiments with high repetition rate laser systems.
[en] Here, a numerical study on ion acceleration in electrostatic shock waves is presented, with the aim of determining the best plasma configuration to achieve quasi-monoenergetic ion beams in laser-driven systems. It was recently shown that tailored near-critical density plasmas characterized by a long-scale decreasing rear density profile lead to beams with low energy spread (Fiúza et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 215001). In this work, a detailed parameter scan investigating different plasma scale lengths is carried out. As result, the optimal plasma spatial scale length that allows for minimizing the energy spread while ensuring a significant reflection of ions by the shock is identified. Furthermore, a new configuration where the required profile has been obtained by coupling micro layers of different densities is proposed. Lastly, results show that this new engineered approach is a valid alternative, guaranteeing a low energy spread with a higher level of controllability.