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[en] To find the optimal coils for stellarators, nonlinear optimization algorithms are applied in existing coil design codes. However, none of these codes have used the information from the second-order derivatives. In this paper, we present a modified Newton method in the recently developed code FOCUS. The Hessian matrix is calculated with analytically derived equations. Its inverse is approximated by a modified Cholesky factorization and applied in the iterative scheme of a classical Newton method. Using this method, FOCUS is able to recover the W7-X modular coils starting from a simple initial guess. Results demonstrate significant advantages.
[en] In this article, recent results on crossed-beam energy transfer are presented. Wave-length tuning was used to vary the amount of energy transfer between two beams in a quasi-stationary plasma with carefully controlled conditions. The amount of transfer agreed well with calculations assuming linear ion acoustic waves with amplitudes up to δn/n ≈ 0.015. Increasing the initial probe intensity to access larger ion acoustic wave amplitudes for otherwise fixed conditions yields evidence of saturation. The ability to manipulate a beam’s polarization, which results from the anisotropic nature of the interaction, is revisited; an example is provided to demonstrate how polarization effects in a multibeam situation can dramatically enhance the expected amount of energy transfer.
[en] In this study, observations of divertor plasma detachment in tokamaks are reviewed. Plasma detachment is characterized in terms of transport and dissipation of power, momentum and particle flux along the open field lines from the midplane to the divertor. Asymmetries in detachment onset and other characteristics between the inboard and outboard divertor plasmas is found to be primarily driven by plasma x drifts. The effect of divertor plate geometry and magnetic configuration on divertor detachment is summarized. Control of divertor detachment has progressed with a development of a number of diagnostics to characterize the detached state in real-time. Finally the compatibility of detached divertor operation with high performance core plasmas is examined.
[en] In this paper, the radial electric field and the ion mean parallel flow are obtained in the helically symmetric experiment stellarator from toroidal flow measurements of C+6 ion at two locations on a flux surface, using the Pfirsch–Schlüter effect. Results from the standard quasi-helically symmetric magnetic configuration are compared with those from the Mirror configuration where the quasi-symmetry is deliberately degraded using auxiliary coils. For similar injected power, the quasi-symmetric configuration is observed to have significantly lower flows while the experimental observations from the Mirror geometry are in better agreement with neoclassical calculations. Finally, indications are that the radial electric field near the core of the quasi-symmetric configuration may be governed by non-neoclassical processes.
[en] During the past two decades of research, the ultra-relativistic beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has achieved many significant milestones. These include the demonstration of ultra-high gradient acceleration of electrons over meter-scale plasma accelerator structures, efficient acceleration of a narrow energy spread electron bunch at high-gradients, positron acceleration using wakes in uniform plasmas and in hollow plasma channels, and demonstrating that highly nonlinear wakes in the 'blow-out regime' have the electric field structure necessary for preserving the emittance of the accelerating bunch. A new 10 GeV electron beam facility, Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test (FACET) II, is currently under construction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for the next generation of PWFA research and development. The FACET II beams will enable the simultaneous demonstration of substantial energy gain of a small emittance electron bunch while demonstrating an efficient transfer of energy from the drive to the trailing bunch. In this paper we first describe the capabilities of the FACET II facility. We then describe a series of PWFA experiments supported by numerical and particle-in-cell simulations designed to demonstrate plasma wake generation where the drive beam is nearly depleted of its energy, high efficiency acceleration of the trailing bunch while doubling its energy and ultimately, quantifying the emittance growth in a single stage of a PWFA that has optimally designed matching sections. Here, we briefly discuss other FACET II plasma-based experiments including in situ positron generation and acceleration, and several schemes that are promising for generating sub-micron emittance bunches that will ultimately be needed for both an early application of a PWFA and for a plasma-based future linear collider.
[en] We report that gas puff imaging (GPI) observations made in NSTX have revealed two-point spatial correlations of edge and scrape-off layer turbulence in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. A common feature is the occurrence of dipole-like patterns with significant regions of negative correlation. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these dipole patterns may be due to blob-hole pairs. Statistical methods are applied to determine the two-point spatial correlation that results from a model of blob-hole pair formation. It is shown that the model produces dipole correlation patterns that are qualitatively similar to the GPI data in several respects. Effects of the reference location (confined surfaces or scrape-off layer), a superimposed random background, hole velocity and lifetime, and background sheared flows are explored and discussed with respect to experimental observations. Additional analysis of the experimental GPI dataset is performed to further test this blob-hole correlation model. A time delay two-point spatial correlation study did not reveal inward propagation of the negative correlation structures that were postulated to correspond to holes in the data nor did it suggest that the negative correlation structures are due to neutral shadowing. However, tracking of the highest and lowest values (extrema) of the normalized GPI fluctuations shows strong evidence for mean inward propagation of minima and outward propagation of maxima, in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, other properties of the experimentally observed extrema are discussed.
[en] Axisymmetric (n=0) density fluctuations measured in the TCV tokamak are observed to possess a frequency f0 which is either varying (radially dispersive oscillations) or a constant over a large fraction of the plasma minor radius (radially global oscillations) as reported in a companion paper [Z. Huang < i>et al., this issue]. Given that f0 scales with the sound speed and given the poloidal structure of density fluctuations, these oscillations were interpreted as Geodesic Acoustic Modes, even though f0 is in fact smaller than the local linear GAM frequency fGAM . In this work we employ the Eulerian gyrokinetic code GENE to simulate TCV relevant conditions and investigate the nature properties of these oscillations, in particular their relation to the safety factor profile. Local and global simulations are carried out and a good qualitative agreement is observed between experiments and simulations. By varying also the plasma temperature and density profiles, we conclude that a variation of the edge safety factor alone is not sufficient to induce a transition from global to radially inhomogeneous oscillations, as was initially suggested by experimental results. This transition appears instead to be the combined result of variations in the different plasma profiles, collisionality and finite machine size effects. In conclusion, simulations also show that radially global GAM-like oscillations can be observed in all fluxes and fluctuation fields, suggesting that they are the result of a complex nonlinear process involving also finite toroidal mode numbers and not just linear global GAM eigenmodes.
[en] Recently published scenarios for fully non-inductive startup and operation on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) [Menard J et al 2012 Nucl. Fusion 52 083015] show Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) as an important component in preparing a target plasma for efficient High Harmonic Fast Wave and Neutral Beam heating. The modelling of the propagation and absorption of EC waves in the evolving plasma is required to define the most effective window of operation, and to optimize the launcher geometry for maximal heating and current drive during this window. Here in this paper, we extend a previous optimization of O1-mode ECRH on NSTX-U to account for the full time-dependent performance of the ECRH using simulations performed with TRANSP. We find that the evolution of the density profile has a prominent role in the optimization by defining the time window of operation, which in certain cases may be a more important metric to compare launcher performance than the average power absorption. This feature cannot be captured by analysis on static profiles, and should be accounted for when optimizing ECRH on any device that operates near the cutoff density. Additionally, the utility of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) in driving current and generating closed flux surfaces in the early startup phase has been demonstrated on a number of devices. Using standalone GENRAY simulations, we find that efficient EBW current drive is possible on NSTX-U if the injection angle is shifted below the midplane and aimed towards the top half of the vacuum vessel. However, collisional damping of the EBW is projected to be significant, in some cases accounting for up to 97\% of the absorbed EBW power.
[en] The presence of error fields has been shown to degrade plasma confinement and drive instabilities. Error fields can arise from many sources, but are predominantly attributed to deviations in the coil geometry. In this paper, we introduce a Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations. A primary cost function used for designing stellarator coils, the surface integral of normalized normal field errors, was adopted to evaluate the deviation of the generated magnetic field from the desired magnetic field. The FOCUS code [Zhu et al., Nucl. Fusion 58(1):016008 (2018)] is utilized to provide fast and accurate calculations of the Hessian. The sensitivities of error fields to coil displacements are then determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix. A proof-of-principle example is given on a CNT-like configuration. We anticipate that this new method could provide information to avoid dominant coil misalignments and simplify coil designs for stellarators.