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[en] The existence of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMS) was theoretically predicted in the middle of the last century by George Gamov and Georges LeMaître. Experimental existence was confirmed in 1965 by physicists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson.Also called „relic radiation“ it is considered to be one of the major confirmations of the Big Bang theory. Its discovery is fundamental to the development of cosmology and of great importance for building our image of the origin of the universe.
[en] In this short article we present these materials, which will certainly rule the condensed matter physics and nanotechnology at the beginning of the 21st century. We highlight a few spectacular results, and show what might be the new directions in this field and beyond.
[en] The story of the COBE satellite mission began in 1974. The successful launch in 1989 was a landmark for modern cosmology. The spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation was shown to follow very precisely a black body form with a temperature of 2.725 K, giving strong support for the Big Bang theory of the Universe.
[en] The explanation of the mechanisms of sensory functions in native and model membranes has led to the development of a wide variety of biological and biomimetic sensors. The article discusses some other possibilities for application of lyotropic submicro- and nano-structures of membrane type in biology and medicine.
[en] Carbon-based electronics is considered as one of the most promising options to replace silicon technology in the future. Good examples are diamond-like carbon (DLC), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphene, which have received remark-able progress recently. This review summarizes some recent developments in the field of carbon-based electronics. Their properties allow realization of numerous active and passive components, sensors and emitters for future application in entirely carbon-based electronics.
[en] The article gives a brief overview of the basic concepts of ellipsometry, the principle of operation and types of ellipsometers in order to promote the application of this optical method in materials science. Those readers who are interested in a deeper knowledge of the method can turn to the cited literature.