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[en] Here, we present the results of rf measurements on a niobium–copper clad superconducting radio-frequency cavity with different cooldown conditions and residual magnetic field in a vertical test Dewar in order to explore the effect of thermal current induced magnetic field and its trapping on the performance of the cavity. The residual resistance, extracted from the Q 0(T) curves in the temperature range 4.3–1.5 K, showed no dependence on a temperature gradient along the cavity during the cooldown across the critical temperature up to ~50 K m–1. The rf losses due to the trapping of residual magnetic field during the cavity cooldown were found to be ~4.3 nΩ μT–1, comparable to the values measured in bulk niobium cavities. An increase of residual resistance following multiple cavity quenches was observed along with evidence of trapping of magnetic flux generated by thermoelectric currents.
[en] We report on the development of multifilamentary Nb3Sn superconductors by a versatile powder-in-tube technique (PIT) that demonstrates a simple pathway to a strand with a higher density of flux-pinning sites that has the potential to increase critical current density beyond present levels. The approach uses internal oxidation of Zr-alloyed Nb tubes to produce Zr oxide particles within the Nb3Sn layer that act as a dispersion of artificial pinning centres (APCs). In this design, SnO2 powder is mixed with Cu5Sn4 powder within the PIT core that supplies the Sn for the A15 reaction with Nb1Zr filament tubes. Initial results show an average grain size of ~38 nm in the A15 layer, compared to the 90–130 nm of typical APC-free high-Jc strands made by conventional PIT or Internal Sn processing. Furthermore, there is a shift in the peak of the pinning force curve from H/H irr of ~0.2 to ~0.3 and the pinning force curves can be deconvoluted into grain boundary and point-pinning components, the point-pinning contribution dominating for the APC Nb-1wt%Zr strands.
[en] Theoretical limits to the performance of superconductors in high magnetic fields parallel to their surfaces are of key relevance to current and future accelerating cavities, especially those made of new higher-Tc materials such as NbSn, NbN, and MgB. Indeed, beyond the so-called superheating field , flux will spontaneously penetrate even a perfect superconducting surface and ruin the performance. We present intuitive arguments and simple estimates for , and combine them with our previous rigorous calculations, which we summarize. We briefly discuss experimental measurements of the superheating field, comparing to our estimates. We explore the effects of materials anisotropy and the danger of disorder in nucleating vortex entry. Will we need to control surface orientation in the layered compound MgB? Can we estimate theoretically whether dirt and defects make these new materials fundamentally more challenging to optimize than niobium? Finally, we discuss and analyze recent proposals to use thin superconducting layers or laminates to enhance the performance of superconducting cavities. As a result, flux entering a laminate can lead to so-called pancake vortices; we consider the physics of the dislocation motion and potential re-annihilation or stabilization of these vortices after their entry.
[en] For the last five decades, bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for Superconducting RF (SRF) cavity applications. Thin film alternatives such as Nb and other higher-Tc materials, mainly Nb compounds and A15 compounds, have been investigated with moderate effort in the past. In recent years, RF cavity performance has approached the theoretical limit for bulk Nb. For further improvement of RF cavity performance for future accelerator projects, research interest is renewed towards alternatives to bulk Nb. Institutions around the world are now investing renewed efforts in the investigation of Nb thin films and superconductors with higher transition temperature Tc for application to SRF cavities. Our paper gives an overview of the results obtained so far and challenges encountered for Nb films as well as other materials, such as Nb compounds, A15 compounds, MgB2, and oxypnictides, for SRF cavity applications. An interesting alternative using a Superconductor-Insulator- Superconductor multilayer approach has been recently proposed to delay the vortex penetration in Nb surfaces. This could potentially lead to further improvement in RF cavities performance using the benefit of the higher critical field Hc of higher-Tc superconductors without being limited with their lower Hc1.
[en] Here, this paper presents test results on a prototype superconducting undulator magnet fabricated using 15% Zr-doped rare-earth barium copper oxide high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes. On an 11-pole magnet we demonstrate an engineering current density, J_e, of more than 2.1 kA mm"-"2 at 4.2 K, a value that is 40% higher than reached in comparable devices wound with NbTi-wire, which is used in all currently operating superconducting undulators. A novel winding scheme enabling the continuous winding of tape-shaped conductors into the intricate undulator magnets as well as a partial interlayer insulation procedure were essential in reaching this advance in performance. Currently, there are rapid advances in the performance of HTS; therefore, achieving even higher current densities in an undulator structure or/and operating it at temperatures higher than 4.2 K will be possible, which would substantially simplify the cryogenic design and reduce overall costs.
[en] The critical current of many practical superconductors is sensitive to strain, and this sensitivity is exacerbated during a quench that induces a peak local strain which can be fatal to superconducting magnets. Here, a new method is introduced to quantify the influence of the conductor stress and strain state during normal operation on the margin to degradation during a quench, as measured by the maximum allowable hot spot temperature T allowable, for composite wires within superconducting magnets. The first conductor examined is Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox round wire carrying high engineering critical current density, JE, of 550 A mm-2 at 4.2 K and 15 T. The critical axial tensile stress of this conductor is determined to be 150 MPa and, in the absence of Lorentz forces, T allowable is greater than 450 K. With increasing axial tensile stress, σ a, however, T allowable decreases nonlinearly, dropping to 280 K for σa = 120 MPa and to 160 K for σa = 145 MPa. T allowable(σa) is shown to be nonlinear and independent of magnetic field from 15 to 30 T. T allowable(σa) dictates the balance between magnetic field generation, which increases with the magnet operating current and stress, and the safety margin, which decreases with decreasing T allowable, and therefore has important engineering value. Lastly, it is also shown that T allowable(σa) can be predicted accurately by a general strain model, showing that strain control is the key to preventing degradation of superconductors during a quench.
[en] Here, as part of the Jefferson Lab 12 GeV accelerator upgrade, the Experimental Physics Hall B detector system requires two superconducting magnets – a Torus and a Solenoid. The specifications required maximum space for the detectors which led to the choice of conduction cooling for each magnet. The Torus consists of 6 trapezoidal 'race-track'-type coils connected in series with an operating current of 3770 A. The Solenoid is an actively shielded 5 Tesla magnet consisting of 5 coils connected in series operating at 2416 A. Within the hall the two magnets are located in close proximity to each other and are surrounded by particle detectors. We describe the philosophy behind the instrumentation selection and control design that accounts for this proximity and other challenging working conditions. We describe the choice of sensor technologies, as well as the control and data acquisition methods. The magnet power and cryogenic control sub-systems are implemented using Allen Bradley Control Logix 1756-L72 Programmable Logic Controllers. Sensor instrumentation read-backs are routed into the PLC via National Instruments cRIO hardware (Field Programmable Gate Arrays or FPGA/RT application) using Jefferson Lab designed FPGA-based multi-sensor-excitation-chassis. Configuration, monitoring, and alarm handlers for the magnet systems are provided via an Experimental Physics Instrumentation & Control System interface (EPICS). Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and the requirement to monitor critical parameters during operation guided the selection of instrumentation and associated hardware. The design of the quench protection and voltage tap sub-systems was driven by the anticipated level of voltages developed during a magnet quench. The primary hard-wired quench detection and protection sub-system together with the secondary PLC-based protection sub-system is also discussed. The successful commissioning and subsequent performance of these magnets demonstrates the robustness of the design and implementation approach that was adopted by the Jefferson Lab team and serves as an excellent 'How To' guide for future projects of this size and complexity.
[en] High-Jc Nb3Sn conductors have low stability against perturbations, which accounts for the slow training rates of high-field Nb3Sn magnets. While it is known that adding substances with high specific heat (C) into Nb3Sn wires can increase their overall specific heat and thus improve their stability, there has not been a practical method that is compatible with the fabrication of long-length conductors. In this work, we put forward a scheme to introduce such substances to distributed-barrier Nb3Sn wires, which adds minimum difficulty to the wire manufacturing process. Multifilamentary wires using a mixture of Cu and high-C Gd2O3 powders have been successfully fabricated along this line. Measurements showed that addition of Gd2O3 had no negative effects on residual resitivity ratio or non-Cu Jc, and that flux jumps were remarkably reduced, and minimum quench energy values at 4.2 K, 14 T were increased by a factor of three, indicating that stability was significantly improved. We also discussed the influences of the positioning of high-C substances and their thermal diffusivity on their effectiveness in reducing the superconductor temperature rise against perturbations. Based on these results, we proposed an optimized conductor architecture to maximize the effectiveness of this approach.
[en] This work concerns the analytical expression of the transverse resistance for lamellar superconductors. It was first shown that the expression given by Gonzalez et al [Gonzalez J.L., Espinoza Ortiz J.S. and Baggio-Saitovich E. 1999 Physica C 315 271] deviates from the famous expression of B F Logan when the so-called effective anisotropy, Γ, is less than 0.25. This deviation was found to be caused by the use of the Dirac function to simulate contacts of negligible width, and that it disappears when contacts are considered of finite but small width. Also, the expression of Gonzalez et al was improved to be valid for the case when the current contacts are not necessarily aligned along the c-axis. A similar expression was given for the longitudinal resistance for the general case when the current contacts are arbitrarily disposed on the same face of the sample. These two expressions are useful to avoid the error induced by contact misalignment. (author)