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[en] Dual left anterior descending artery is a rare coronary artery anomaly showing two left anterior descending arteries. Short anterior descending artery usually arises from the left coronary artery, while long anterior descending artery has anomalous origin and course. Dual left anterior descending artery with origin of long anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a very rare coronary artery anomaly which has not been reported previously in the literature. We present the computed tomography coronary angiographic findings of this rare case in a young female patient who presented with atypical chest pain.
[en] Primary leptomeningeal oligodendrogliomatosis (PLO) is a rare low-grade intracranial and spinal canal subarachnoid neoplasm without an obvious primary neoplasm in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. We present here the serial progression of radiological findings of this rare disease in a 2-year-old male child whose clinical status deteriorated over a period of 4 months with the main complaint of partial seizures. During this period, the MR findings progressed from mild hydrocephalus with minimal leptomeningeal enhancement to leptomeningeal multiple cystic lesions in the entire neuraxis including the spine.
[en] We report two infants presenting with unilateral congenital facial palsy since birth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in both the cases revealed complete unilateral aplasia of facial nerve. To our knowledge, this is the first reported MR depiction of nonsyndromic isolated facial nerve aplasia. Imaging features and the pertinent anatomy is discussed along with a brief review of literature.
[en] Periventricular white matter is most commonly injured in preterm babies with hypoxia. To assess white matter damage, we decided to perform diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in preterm children with history of hypoxia and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) (PTH). We hypothesized that the PTH have reduced number of white matter fibres compared to age matched pre term children without hypoxia (PTHO), and also depending on the severity of PVL, there could be reduction in the number of fibres as well. The present study was carried out at the Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram. DTI was performed on 15 PTH and 15 PTHO. We measured number of fibres and fractional anisotropy of corpus callosum (CC) and optic radiations (OR). There was significant difference between two groups with regard OR (P < 0.001). The mean number of OR fibres in cases and control was 104 ± 28.44 (mean ± SD) and 578 ± 286 (mean ± SD), respectively. The mean number of CC in cases was 953 ± 429 and in controls was 1625 ± 116 with a P value <0.56. No significant difference in FA was seen between cases and controls (P = 0.94). Preterm children with history of hypoxia and MRI features of PVL show reduced number of CC and OR compared to preterm children without hypoxia. There was significant correlation between PVL severity and number of OR fibres which could be due to the preferential involvement of periventricular white matter, in which OR has a major contribution.
[en] Extrapelvic endometriosis (EPE) is a rare entity which may potentially occur at any site. Symptomatic EPE is now increasingly being managed laparoscopically. Imaging is imperative in diagnosis as well as extent delineation prior to surgery. In addition to increasing the success rate of diagnostic laparoscopy, prior knowledge of EPE at certain sites may modify the standard surgical technique. We present here an unusual case of chronic pain in the right shoulder in a 26-year-old female caused by subdiaphragmatic endometriosis (SDE). It was noticed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences; however, due to the lack of the characteristic signal intensity, imaging findings were noncontributory. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) facilitated its characterization and precisely mapped the extent of involvement. SDE should be suspected in young females presenting with cyclical shoulder pain. Due to nonspecific clinical features, it may remain undiagnosed. MRI is the imaging modality of choice in evaluation of EPE. Including DWI sequence in the MR protocol increases the diagnostic precision besides delineating the extent of involvement noninvasively.
[en] To describe the radiographic appearance of subclinical calcified brown fat necrosis and the associated clinical and laboratory findings. Picture Archiving and Communications Sytem (PACS) was searched using keywords “soft tissue calcification” and “chest.” The clinical record was searched for prior cardiac surgery, bypass, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygentation (ECMO) and prostaglandin use. Age when calcifications were first detected, location, resolution, and associated laboratory abnormalities were recorded. Nine patients were identified. None had skin lesions. All patients had congenital heart disease and had experienced cardiac/respiratory arrest and/or severe hypotension 1–6 weeks before soft tissue calcifications occurred. Calcifications resolved by 9 weeks to 5 months in 3 patients. The remaining were either deceased or lacked follow-up imaging. Renal ultrasound was performed in all but 1 patient. Nephrocalcinosis was only seen in 1 patient. Brown fat necrosis is subclinical, diagnosed on plain film, and likely self-limited. It occurs in term and preterm infants who have undergone significant systemic stress and carries a poor prognosis.
[en] To compare the diagnostic performance of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the characterization of focal renal lesions. We also compared MDCT and MRI in the staging of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred and twenty adult patients underwent MDCT (40-row and 128-row scanners), MRI (at 1.5 T), and DWI (at b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm2) for characterization of 225 renal lesions. There were 65 malignant neoplasms (44 RCCs), 25 benign neoplasms, 25 abscesses, 45 pseudotumors, 15 hemorrhagic cysts, and 50 benign cysts. A composite gold standard including histology, typical imaging criteria, and follow-up imaging was employed. To determine the diagnostic performance of imaging modalities, area-under-curve (AUC) was calculated by receiver-operating-characteristic analysis and compared. Fisher's exact test was used to compare the diagnostic accuracies and confidence levels with MDCT, MRI, and MRI + DWI. Cross-tabulation was used to assess the precision of MDCT and MRI in RCC staging. AUC for MDCT (0.834) and MRI (0.841) in the classification of benign and malignant lesions were within corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) (P = 0.88) whereas MRI + DWI had significantly better performance (AUC 0.968, P = 0.0002 and 0.0004, respectively). Both CT and MRI had low specificity (66.9% and 68.8%, respectively), which increased substantially with DWI (93.8%) owing to correct diagnosis of pseudotumors. MRI was superior to CT in diagnosing necrotic RCC and hemorrhagic cysts. MRI + DWI had the highest accuracy (94.2%) in assigning the definitive diagnosis and 97.6% lesions were diagnosed with very high confidence, significantly better than CT and MRI. Both CT and MRI had the same accuracy (86.1%) in RCC staging and evaluation of intravascular thrombi. Characterization of renal lesions was most accurate with MRI + DWI. The latter is also the most suitable modality in diagnosing pseudotumors and evaluating patients with renal dysfunction. CT and MRI were equivalent in RCC staging.
[en] Both fluoroscopic water-soluble contrast swallow (FWSCS) and CT water-soluble contrast swallow (CTWSCS) are widely performed as a routine in the post-esophagectomy patient to assess for anastomotic leak. Several prospective studies have compared FWSCS and CTWSCS; however, no synthesis of the data exists. Systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy studies comparing FWSCS and CTWSCS in the adult patient following esophagectomy for malignancy was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Three diagnostic test accuracy studies met the inclusion criteria, directly comparing FWSCS and CTWSCS in 185 patients. FWSCS demonstrated high specificity (98%), but low sensitivity (64%). CTWSCS can be categorized as normal, mediastinal gas without contrast leak, or leakage of oral contrast. Visible leakage of oral contrast demonstrated high specificity (98%) but low sensitivity (56%). The presence of mediastinal gas increased sensitivity (84%), but reduced specificity (85%). The higher sensitivity of CTWSCS over FWSCS failed to reach significance (P = 0.125). CTWSCS shares the high specificity of FWSCS. Its higher sensitivity increases its utility as a rule-out test in the postoperative period. Additional factors that may influence decision-making are described.
[en] Congenital urethral duplication is a rare anomaly, with less than 200 cases described in the literature. The investigations that are usually performed are micturating cystourethrography (MCU) and retrograde urethrography (RGU), which can diagnose the presence of duplication but cannot diagnose the precise relationship of the duplicated urethra with other pelvic structures. MRI, because of the excellent tissue contrast that it provides and its multiplanar ability, can demonstrate with precision, the size, shape and position of the two urethras. We describe below a case where MRI was able to show this exquisitely
[en] Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a public health problem in both developing and industrialized countries. TB can involve pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary sites. The musculoskeletal system is involved in 1–3% of patients with tuberculosis. Although musculoskeletal TB has become uncommon in the Western world, it remains a huge problem in Asia, Africa, and many developing countries. Tuberculous spondylitis is the most common form of musculoskeletal TB and accounts for approximately 50% of cases. Extraspinal musculoskeletal TB shows a predilection for large joints (hip and knee) and para-articular areas; isolated soft tissue TB is extremely rare. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are mandatory to prevent serious destruction of joints and skeletal deformity. However, due to the nonspecific and often indolent clinical presentation, the diagnosis may be delayed. Radiological assessment is often the first step in the diagnostic workup of patients with musculoskeletal TB and further investigations are decided by the findings on radiography. Both the radiologist and the clinician should be aware of the possibility of this diagnosis. In this manuscript we review the imaging features of extraspinal bone, joint, and soft tissue TB