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[en] The Dyson-Schwinger approach to mesons as quark-antiquark bound states produces a very satisfactory description of the whole light pseudoscalar nonet, both at zero and at finite temperatures . Especially interesting is the temperature behavior of the η-η′ complex, where results for masses differ very greatly for various possible relationships between the chiral restoration temperature and the temperature of melting of the topological susceptibility χ. Namely, χ is connected with the quantity β in the η-η′ mass matrix as χ = β (2 +X 2)f2π/6, where . For example, in certain regimes, the “mass” of η NS , namely , for some temperatures becomes larger than , the “mass” of η S ; that is, and can can cross.
[en] A new experiment named MTV-G, probing a large electron spin-precession due to a possible strong gravitational field, which predicted by large extra dimension model, is started at TRIUMF from 2011. In an electron-nuclear scattering experiment, a strong gravitational field is tested as a large spin precession effect caused by geodetic precession predicted by general relativity theory as a result of a warped space-time around nuclei. Experimental design using spin polarized electron source and Mott-spin analyzer, commissioning experiment and the preliminary results are described.
[en] The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory by analogy with classical electrodynamics. As a consequence, an inevitable effect in standard theory is the wave packet spreading (WPS) of the photon coordinate wave function in directions perpendicular to the photon momentum. This leads to the following paradoxes: if the major part of photons emitted by stars are in wave packet states (what is the most probable scenario) then we should see not separate stars but only an almost continuous background from all stars; no anisotropy of the CMB radiation should be observable; data on gamma-ray bursts, signals from directional radio antennas (in particular, in experiments on Shapiro delay) and signals from pulsars show no signs of WPS. In addition, a problem arises why there are no signs of WPS for protons in the LHC ring. We argue that the above postulate is based neither on strong theoretical arguments nor on experimental data and propose a new consistent definition of the position operator. Then WPS in directions perpendicular to the particle momentum is absent and the paradoxes are resolved. Different components of the new position operator do not commute with each other and, as a consequence, there is no wave function in coordinate representation. Implications of the results for entanglement, quantum locality and the problem of time in quantum theory are discussed.
[en] Geoneutrino is a new channel of information about geochemical composition of the Earth. We analyzed here the following problem. What statistics do we need to distinguish between predictions of Bulk Silicate Earth model and Hydridic Earth model for Th/U signal ratio? We obtained the simple formula for estimation of error of Th/U signal ratio. Our calculations show that we need more than 22 kt · year exposition for Gran-Sasso underground laboratory and Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. We need more than 27 kt · year exposition for Kamioka site in the case of stopping of all Japanese nuclear power plants.
[en] After discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN the Standard Model acquired a status of the theory of the elementary particles in the electroweak range (up to about 300 GeV). What general conclusions can be inferred from the Standard Model? It looks that the Standard Model teaches us that in the framework of such general principles as local gauge symmetry, unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions and Brout-Englert-Higgs spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry nature chooses the simplest possibilities. Two-component left-handed massless neutrino fields play crucial role in the determination of the charged current structure of the Standard Model. The absence of the right-handed neutrino fields in the Standard Model is the simplest, most economical possibility. In such a scenario Majorana mass term is the only possibility for neutrinos to be massive and mixed. Such mass term is generated by the lepton-number violating Weinberg effective Lagrangian. In this approach three Majorana neutrino masses are suppressed with respect to the masses of other fundamental fermions by the ratio of the electroweak scale and a scale of a lepton-number violating physics. The discovery of the neutrinoless double β-decay and absence of transitions of flavor neutrinos into sterile states would be evidence in favor of the minimal scenario we advocate here.
[en] Recently it has been found that a certain class of hybrid star equations of state with a large latent heat (strong first order phase transition obtained by a Maxwell construction) between stiff hadronic and stiff quark matter phases allows for the appearance of a third family of compact stars (including “twins”) at high mass of ∼ 2M⊙ We investigate how robust this high-mass twin phenomenon is against a smoothing of the transition which would occur, e.g., due to pasta structures in the mixed phase. To this end we propose a simple construction of a pasta-like equation of state with a parameter that quantifies the degree of smoothing of the transition and could eventually be related to the surface tension of the pasta structures. It is interesting to note that the range of energy densities for the transition as well as the pressure at the onset of the transition of this class of hybrid star matter at zero temperature corresponds well to values of the same quantities found in finite temperature lattice QCD simulations for the 1 σ region at the pseudocritical temperature Tc = 154 ± 9 MeV. The pattern of the speed of sound as a function of energy density is very different.
[en] The electron cooling-stacking injection is one of the most widely used injection methods applied in forming high-intensity cooled ion beams in the synchrotrons. The maximum available ion intensity in the synchrotron is determined by the lifetime of ions and the cooling-stacking efficiency. The formation of cooled high-intensity beams is constrained by instability, leading to a strong reduction in the ion lifetime. The results of experimental investigations and simulations of the cooling-stacking injection and stability of high-intensity cooled ion beams in synchrotrons with electron cooling are discussed.
[en] The basic techniques for nondestructive diagnostics and detection of losses of charged particle beams used in accelerator engineering are reviewed. The data provided may help choose the systems for diagnostics and detection of losses of beams and give a qualitative picture of the operation principles of such devices. Quantitative characteristics that define the limits of applicability of each diagnostic technique are outlined.
[en] An overview of the main scientific areas of condensed matter research, which are extended with the use of the IBR-2 high-flux research reactor, is presented. It is demonstrated that the spectrometer facility of the upgraded reactor has great potential for studying the structural, magnetic, and dynamical properties of novel functional materials and nanobiosystems, which ensures the leading position of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in neutron research of condensed matter for the long-term prospect.
[en] Various properties of correlators of the two-dimensional conformal field theory are discussed. Specifically, their relation to the partition function of the four-dimensional supersymmetric theory is analyzed. In addition to being of interest in its own right, this relation is of practical importance. For example, it is much easier to calculate the known expressions for the partition function of supersymmetric theory than to calculate directly the expressions for correlators in conformal theory. The examined representation of conformal theory correlators as a matrix model serves the same purpose. The integral form of these correlators allows one to generalize the obtained results for the Virasoro algebra to more complicated cases of the W algebra or the quantum Virasoro algebra. This provides an opportunity to examine more complex configurations in conformal field theory. The three-dimensional Chern–Simons theory is discussed in the second part of the present review. The current interest in this theory stems largely from its relation to the mathematical knot theory (a rather well-developed area of mathematics known since the 17th century). The primary objective of this theory is to develop an algorithm that allows one to distinguish different knots (closed loops in three-dimensional space). The basic way to do this is by constructing the so-called knot invariants.