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[en] Here, the resolution of current disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations would benefit from the experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Iron's complex ionic structure and large contribution to the opacity in the radiative zone of the sun make iron a good candidate for validation. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat buried layer targets to plasma conditions comparable to the radiative zone of the sun, and the frequency dependent opacity can be inferred from the target's measured x-ray emission. Target and laser parameters must be optimized to reach specific plasma conditions and meet x-ray emission requirements. The HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser irradiance and target dimensions on the plasma conditions, x-ray emission, and inferred opacity of iron and iron-magnesium buried layer targets. It was determined that plasma conditions are dominantly controlled by the laser energy and the tamper thickness. The accuracy of the inferred opacity is sensitive to tamper emission and optical depth effects. Experiments at conditions relevant to the radiative zone of the sun would investigate the validity of opacity theories important to resolving disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations.
[en] Nonlinear simulations with the 3D electromagnetic two-fluid BOUT code are employed to study the dynamics of edge localized modes (ELMs) driven by intermediate wavelength peeling-ballooning modes. It is found that the early behavior of the modes is similar to expectations from linear, ideal peeling-ballooning mode theory, with the modes growing linearly at a fraction of the Alfven frequency. In the non-linear phase, the modes grow explosively, forming a number of extended filaments which propagate rapidly from the outer closed flux region into the open flux region toward the outer wall. Similarities to non-linear linear ballooning theory, as well as additional complexities are observed. Comparison to observations reveals a number of similarities. Implications of the simulations and proposals for the dynamics of the full ELM crash are discussed
[en] This paper presents quasi-linear gyrokinetic predictions of the Coriolis momentum pinch for low aspect-ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-modes where previous experimental measurements were focused. Local, linear calculations predict that in the region of interest (just outside the mid-radius) of these relatively high-beta plasmas, profiles are most unstable to microtearing modes that are only effective in transporting electron energy. However, sub-dominant electromagnetic and electrostaticballooning modes are also unstable, which are effective at transporting energy, particles, and momentum. The quasi-linear prediction of transport from these weaker ballooning modes, assuming they contribute transport in addition to that from microtearing modes in a nonlinear turbulent state, leads to a very small or outward convection of momentum, inconsistent with the experimentally measured inward pinch, and opposite to predictions in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Additional predictions of a low beta L-mode plasma, unstable to more traditional electrostatic ion temperature gradient-trapped electron mode instability, show that the Coriolis pinch is inward but remains relatively weak and insensitive to many parameter variations. The weak or outward pinch predicted in NSTX plasmas appears to be at least partially correlated to changes in the parallel mode structure that occur at a finite beta and low aspect ratio, as discussed in previous theories. The only conditions identified where a stronger inward pinch is predicted occur either in the purely electrostatic limit or if the aspect ratio is increased. Lastly, as the Coriolis pinch cannot explain the measured momentum pinch, additional theoretical momentum transport mechanisms are discussed that may be potentially important
[en] Freshwater scarcity derived from seasonal weather variations, climate change, and over-development has led to serious consideration for water reuse. Water reuse involves the direct processing of wastewater for either indirect or directly potable water reuse.
[en] Low-density foams of low-/mid-Z materials have been previously proposed to mitigate laser imprint for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF). For foam densities above the critical density of the drive laser, the mechanism of laser-imprint mitigation relies on the reduced growth rate of Rayleigh–Taylor instability because of the increased ablation velocity and density scale length at the ablation surface. Experimental demonstration of this concept has been limited so far to planar-target geometry. The impact of foams on spherical implosions has not yet been explored in experiments. To examine the viability of using an above-critical-density foam layer to mitigate laser-imprint effects in direct-drive ICF implosions on OMEGA, we have performed a series of 2-D DRACO simulations with state-of-the-art physics models, including nonlocal thermal transport, cross-beam energy transfer, and first-principles equation-of-state tables. The simulation results indicate that a 40-μm-thick CH or SiO2 foam layer with a density of p = 40 mg/cm3 added to a D2-filled polystyrene (CH) capsule can significantly improve the moderate-adiabat (α ≈ 3) implosion performance. In comparison with the standard CH target implosion, an increase of neutron yield by a factor of 4 to 8 and the recovery of 1-D compression pR are predicted by DRACO simulations for a foam-target surface roughness of σrms ≤ 0.5 μm. These encouraging results could readily facilitate experimental demonstrations of laser-imprint mitigation with an above-critical-density foam layer.
[en] We report strong collisional shocks in multi-ion plasmas are featured in many environments, with Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments being one prominent example. Recent work [Keenan et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 053203 (2017)] answered in detail a number of outstanding questions concerning the kinetic structure of steady-state, planar plasma shocks, e.g., the shock width scaling by the Mach number, M. However, it did not discuss shock-driven ion-species stratification (e.g., relative concentration modification and temperature separation). These are important effects since many recent ICF experiments have evaded explanation by standard, single-fluid, radiation-hydrodynamic (rad-hydro) numerical simulations, and shock-driven fuel stratification likely contributes to this discrepancy. Employing the state-of-the-art Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP, along with multi-ion hydro simulations and semi-analytics, we quantify the ion stratification by planar shocks with the arbitrary Mach number and the relative species concentration for two-ion plasmas in terms of ion mass and charge ratios. In particular, for strong shocks, we find that the structure of the ion temperature separation has a nearly universal character across ion mass and charge ratios. Lastly, we find that the shock fronts are enriched with the lighter ion species and the enrichment scales as M4 for M»1.
[en] The MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion) experiment at Sandia National Labs is one of the three main approaches to inertial confinement fusion. Radiographic measurements of the imploding liner have shown helical structuring that was not included in MagLIF scaling calculations but that could fundamentally change the viability of the approach. We present the first MagLIF linear dynamics simulations, using extended magnetohydrodynamical (XMHD) as well as standard MHD modeling, that reproduce these helical structures, thus enabling a physical understanding of their origin and development. Specifically, it is found that low-density plasma from the simulated power flow surfaces can compress the axial flux in the region surrounding the liner, leading to a strong layer of axial flux on the liner. The strong axial magnetic field on the liner imposes helical magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor perturbations into the imploding liner. A detailed comparison of XMHD and MHD modeling shows that there are defects in the MHD treatment of low-density plasma dynamics that are remedied by inclusion of the Hall term that is included in our XMHD model. In order to obtain fair agreement between XMHD and MHD, great care must be taken in the implementation of the numerics, especially for MHD. Even with a careful treatment of low-density plasma, MHD exhibits significant shortcomings that emphasize the importance of using XMHD modeling in pulsed-power driven high-energy-density experiments. As a result, the present results may explain why past MHD modeling efforts have failed to produce the helical structuring without initially imposing helical perturbations.
[en] The burning core of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma produces bright x-rays at stagnation that can directly diagnose core conditions essential for comparison to simulations and understanding fusion yields. These x-rays also backlight the surrounding shell of warm, dense matter, whose properties are critical to understanding the efficacy of the inertial confinement and global morphology. In this work, we show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra of mid-Z impurities or dopants in the warm dense shell can reveal the optical depth, temperature, and density of the shell and help constrain models of warm, dense matter. This is illustrated by the example of a high-resolution spectrum collected from an ICF plasma with a beryllium shell containing native iron impurities. Lastly, analysis of the iron K-edge provides model-independent diagnostics of the shell density (2.3 × 1024 e/cm3) and temperature (10 eV), while a 12-eV red shift in Kβ and 5-eV blue shift in the K-edge discriminate among models of warm dense matter: Both shifts are well described by a self-consistent field model based on density functional theory but are not fully consistent with isolated-atom models using ad-hoc density effects.
[en] We present Auto-magnetizing (AutoMag) liners [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 012704 (2017)] are designed to generate up to 100 T of axial magnetic field in the fuel for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] without the need for external field coils. AutoMag liners (cylindrical tubes) are composed of discrete metallic helical conduction paths separated by electrically insulating material. Initially, helical current in the AutoMag liner produces internal axial magnetic field during a long (100 to 300 ns) current prepulse with an average current rise rate dI/dt=5 kA/ns. After the cold fuel is magnetized, a rapidly rising current (200 kA/ns) generates a calculated electric field of 64 MV/m between the helices. Such field is sufficient to force dielectric breakdown of the insulating material after which liner current is reoriented from helical to predominantly axial which ceases the AutoMag axial magnetic field production mechanism and the z-pinch liner implodes. Proof of concept experiments have been executed on the Mykonos linear transformer driver to measure the axial field produced by a variety of AutoMag liners and to evaluate what physical processes drive dielectric breakdown. Lastly, a range of field strengths have been generated in various cm-scale liners in agreement with magnetic transient simulations including a measured field above 90 T at I = 350 kA. By varying the helical pitch angle, insulator material, and insulator geometry, favorable liner designs have been identified for which breakdown occurs under predictable and reproducible field conditions.