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[en] The affiliations of the coauthors, Antony van der Ent and Shota Sakaguchi have been incorrectly published in the original publication of the article. The correct affiliations are provided in this correction.
[en] Although quantitative data on interspecific interactions within complex food webs are essential for evaluation of assumptions, hypotheses, and predictions of ecological theories; empirical studies yielding quantitative data on complex food webs are very limited. Ecological information on body size, habitat use, and seasonality of the component species of food webs aids in determining the mechanisms of food web structures. Ideally, ecological information on component species should be obtained contemporaneously when used to describe quantitative food webs, but such observations and sampling strategies are labor intensive and thus have been rarely described. We conducted year-round samplings of, and performed observations on, a temperate stream: the upper reaches of the Yura River, Kyoto, Japan. We derived quantitative data on the abundance, biomass, body mass, microhabitat use, and those seasonality of 7 fish species and 167 invertebrate taxa of the temperate stream food web. In addition, we estimated the per mass consumption rates of 7 predatory fish species, consuming 183 prey invertebrates, and the ratios between the per mass consumption rates of the 7 predatory fish species and the production rates of 78 prey invertebrates in each trophic link. All fishes and aquatic invertebrates were identified to species or lowest possible taxon. Our data may contribute to the construction of mathematical models explaining the behavior of stream communities/ecosystems.
[en] Lake Inba is one of the most eutrophic lakes in Japan. This data paper reports the abundance of phytoplankton species sampled biweekly from April 1986 to March 2016 at four stations in Lake Inba. Monitoring has been carried out by Chiba Prefectural Government, and phytoplankton count data have been collected since 1986. A total of 340 phytoplankton species were identified and enumerated by microscopy, as numbers of cells or colonies. The abundance of each species was expressed as cells per milliliter lake water. Total cell density ranged from 102 to 108 cells ml−1. The dominant cell class density was Cyanobacteria throughout the year. Cyanobacteria, such as Phormidium spp., Microcystis aeruginosa, and Anabaena spp. (Dolicospermum spp.), were the most dense in all months. The dominant cyanobacteria species reached concentrations of 107 cells ml−1. Diatoms, such as Aulacoseira granulata and A. ambigua, were also abundant, reaching 106 cells ml−1. These data can be used to appreciate how anthropogenic disturbances, such as eutrophication and global warming, affect density and community composition of phytoplankton.
[en] The impact of eutrophication on aquatic ecosystems remains an important topic in aquatic ecology; however, recent successes in water quality restoration in highly eutrophicated water bodies present new research potential regarding re-oligotrophication. Successfully reducing nutrient loading from sewage treatment through restoration activities, induces large changes in phytoplankton composition and biomass, particularly replacement of cyanobacterial dominance. In Lake Suwa, a shallow eutrophic lake in central Japan, recovery has occurred due to water quality restoration efforts since the 1970s. The improvement of lake trophic state from hypertrophic to mesotrophic is accompanied by various changes, such as rapid decreases in biomass of phytoplankton, benthic invertebrates and planktivorous pond smelt, and increases in biomass of aquatic vegetation, mainly floating leaved plants. During re-oligotrophication, zooplankton are important because they are major secondary producers in lake ecosystems. In Lake Suwa, the Research and Education Center for Inland Water Environment, Shinshu University has collected bi-weekly zooplankton samples and analyzed species composition since 1996, when the lake was in a hypertrophic state with serious Microcystis blooms. Lake Suwa is one representative lake for re-oligotrophication in a shallow eutrophic system, and our zooplankton dataset can be used to understand the changes in ecosystem structure and function.
[en] Tree hollows often harbor animals and microorganisms, thereby storing nutritive resources derived from their biological activities. The outflows from tree hollows can create unique microenvironments, which may affect communities of epiphytic organisms on trunk surfaces below the hollows. In this study, we tested whether the species richness and composition of epiphytic bryophytes (liverworts and mosses) and lichens differ above and below tree hollows of Aria japonica and Cercidiphyllum japonicum in a Japanese temperate forest. The species richness of epiphytic bryophytes and lichens did not differ above and below hollows; however, the species composition of bryophytes differed significantly above and below hollows. Indicator species analyses showed that the moss species Anomodon tristis and the liverwort species Porella vernicosa were significantly more common below than above hollows, while the liverwort species Radula japonica and four lichen species, including Leptogium cyanescens, occurred more frequently above than below hollows. Our results highlight that tree hollows can produce unique microenvironments on trunk surfaces that potentially contribute to the maintenance of epiphytic diversity on a local scale.
[en] The diversity of native non-crop (weed) vegetation in agricultural landscapes can provide arthropod natural enemies with food sources and shelter, thus improving natural pest control and reducing dependence on chemical pesticides. Moreover, native plants to a region are uniquely positioned to provide cultural ecosystem services such as wild food and wild medicinal plants, as well as aesthetics values. The Mediterranean Basin is one of the world’s richest places in terms of plant diversity. Olive cultivation is the basic tree cultivation in the Mediterranean and dominates its rural landscape. The olive grove ecosystem, whose flora presents a notable resemblance to the flora of Mediterranean type ecosystems, is home to a myriad of species of insects, spiders and other arthropods. This includes over one hundred phytophagous species, plus an uncounted number of entomophagous that help to reduce phytophagous populations. Here we present data on flowering plant species from the ground cover of olive groves, store information on characteristics of plant species namely physiognomic type and flowering period, geographic information and some statistical values on olive groves study area and records in the flora of visitor arthropods and cultural ecosystem services. The data include information on 36 olive groves, 100 flora species (taxa), of which 86 native in Portugal, 5 endemic to Iberian Peninsula and 4 endemic to Portugal Continental, and present also a summary of the records of visitor arthropods in these flora (i.e. 2 classes, 6 orders and 12 families).
[en] Typhoon No. 15 in 1954 (Marie) caused catastrophic windthrow in Hokkaido, northern Japan. The Tomakomai District of the National Forest was one of the forests severely damaged. A study site was established in a stand of the National Forest within the jurisdiction of the Iburi East District Forest Office. The stand was located on the eastern slope of Mt. Tarumae at an elevation of approximately 300–310 m a.s.l. at an angle of approximately 5°. Two belts sized 4 m × 40 m, crossing at right angles at the center, were established within the site in 1957, and censuses on regeneration were conducted in 1957, 1970, 1973, 1978, 1983, 1990, 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016. All stems of coniferous tree species (height ≥ 10 cm) that regenerated in the belts were marked. For broadleaved tree species, all stems with height ≥ 1.3 m were marked in 1957–1990, but stems with height ≥ 10 cm were marked after 1996. Height was measured for all marked stems, and the diameter at breast height was measured for stems with height ≥ 1.3 m. During the censuses, 27 coniferous and broadleaved tree species were identified and three more species were identified to the genus level. There are 2152 records for the occurrence data and 10,660 records for the measurement data, including missing values. The stem occurrence data were compiled following the Darwin Core format, and the measurement data were compiled following the Darwin Core Measurement or Fact Extension format. Finally all data were compiled for the Darwin Core Archive, an international standard format for biodiversity data. These data can help in understanding the succession of forests following large-scale disturbance and in managing this type of forest properly.
[en] Over the past few decades, rural forest ecosystems in Japan have experienced dynamic vegetation changes due to forest dieback and changes in land use, leading to the loss of local species populations and biodiversity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of pine (Pinus densiflora) stumps and logs for tree seedling regeneration in a mixed natural forest in Kyoto Prefecture, Japan, that had previously experienced severe pine dieback, and to determine which factors most greatly affect seedling establishment. Seedlings of 17 tree species were recorded on pine stumps and logs in later stages of decay, among which Chamaecyparis obtusa and Rhododendron reticulatum were most dominant. Both of these species had a greater density on pine stumps than on logs or soil, despite stumps covering less than 0.5% of the study area. In addition, the seedling densities of both species were positively associated with moss cover on coarse woody debris, but negatively associated with wood pH. Brown rot in the sapwood and heartwood, which occurred more frequently in stumps than in logs, also positively associated with the seedling densities of both species. Predictive modelling showed that C. obtusa seedlings exhibited a stronger response to pH in stumps than in logs. Therefore, since brown-rotted wood is acidic due to fungal decay activities, brown-rotted pine stumps may present hotspots of C. obtusa seedling regeneration at the study site.