Results 1 - 10 of 523
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[en] Density modulation of charged particle beams may occur as a consequence of deliberate action, or may occur inadvertently because of imperfections in the particle source or acceleration method. In the case of intense beams, where space charge and external focusing govern the beam dynamics, density modulation may under some circumstances be converted to velocity modulation, with a corresponding conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Whether this will occur depends on the properties of the beam and the initial modulation. This paper describes the evolution of discrete and continuous density modulations on intense beams, and discusses three recent experiments related to the dynamics of density-modulated electron beams
[en] We study the potential energy landscape underlying the motion of monatomic liquids by quenching from random initial configurations (stochastic configurations) to the nearest local minimum of the potential energy. We show that this procedure reveals the underlying potential energy surface directly. This is in contrast to the common technique of quenching from a molecular dynamics trajectory which does not allow a direct view of the underlying potential energy surface, but needs to be corrected for thermodynamic weighting factors
[en] A relativistic, warm fluid model of a nonequilibrium, collisionless plasma is developed and applied to examine nonlinear Langmuir waves excited by relativistically-intense, short-pulse lasers. Closure of the covariant fluid theory is obtained via an asymptotic expansion assuming a non-relativistic plasma temperature. The momentum spread is calculated in the presence of an intense laser field and shown to be intrinsically anisotropic. Coupling between the transverse and longitudinal momentum variances is enabled by the laser field. A generalized dispersion relation is derived for langmuir waves in a thermal plasma in the presence of an intense laser field. Including thermal fluctuations in three velocity-space dimensions, the properties of the nonlinear electron plasma wave, such as the plasma temperature evolution and nonlinear wavelength, are examined, and the maximum amplitude of the nonlinear oscillation is derived. The presence of a relativistically intense laser pulse is shown to strongly influence the maximum plasma wave amplitude for non-relativistic phase velocities owing to the coupling between the longitudinal and transverse momentum variances.
[en] The temperature equilibration rate in dense hydrogen (for both Ti > Te and Ti < Te) has been calculated with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations for temperatures between 10 and 300 eV and densities between 1020/cc to 1024/cc. Careful attention has been devoted to convergence of the simulations, including the role of semiclassical potentials. We find that for Coulomb logarithms L ∼> 1, Brown-Preston-Singleton (Brown et al., Phys. Rep. 410, 237 (2005)) with the sub-leading corrections and the fit of Gericke-Murillo-Schlanges (Gericke et al., PRE 65, 036418 (2003)) to the T-matrix evaluation of the collision operator, agrees with the MD data to within the error bars of the simulation. For more strongly-coupled plasmas where L ∼< 1, our numerical results are consistent with the fit of Gericke-Murillo-Schlanges
[en] Our quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that a sufficiently high hydration level is a prerequisite for the temperature-dependent dynamic crossover on the time scale of hundreds of picoseconds in the surface water on rutile (TiO2). Below the hydration level corresponding to the monolayer coverage of mobile surface water, a weak temperature dependence of the relaxation times with no apparent dynamic crossover is observed. We associate the dynamic crossover with inter-layer jumps of the mobile water molecules, which become possible only at a sufficiently high hydration level
[en] The spin-echo approach is extended to include biocomplexes for which the interaction with dynamical noise, produced by the protein environment, is strong. Significant restoration of the free induction decay signal due to homogeneous (decoherence) and inhomogeneous (dephasing) broadening is demonstrated analytically and numerically for both an individual dimer of interacting chlorophylls and for an ensemble of dimers. Here, our approach does not require the use of small interaction constants between the electron states and the protein fluctuations. It is based on an exact and closed system of ordinary differential equations that can be easily solved for a wide range of parameters that are relevant for bioapplications.
[en] By using three tunable wavelengths on different cones of laser beams on the National Ignition Facility, numerical simulations show that the energy transfer between beams can be tuned to redistribute the energy within the cones of beams most prone to backscatter instabilities. These radiative hydrodynamics and laser-plasma interaction simulations have been tested against large scale hohlraum experiments with two tunable wavelengths, and reproduce the hohlraum energetics and symmetry. Using a third wavelength provides a greater level of control of the laser energy distribution and coupling in the hohlraum, and could significantly reduce stimulated Raman scattering losses and increase the hohlraum radiation drive while maintaining a good implosion symmetry.
[en] In materials science and many other research areas, models are frequently inferred without considering their generalization to unseen data. Here, we apply statistical learning using cross-validation to obtain an optimally predictive coarse-grained description of a two-dimensional kinetic nearest-neighbor Ising model with Glauber dynamics (GD) based on the stochastic Ginzburg-Landau equation (sGLE). The latter is learned from GD “training” data using a log-likelihood analysis, and its predictive ability for various complexities of the model is tested on GD “test” data independent of the data used to train the model on. Using two different error metrics, we perform a detailed analysis of the error between magnetization time trajectories simulated using the learned sGLE coarse-grained description and those obtained using the GD model. We show that both for equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium GD training trajectories, the standard phenomenological description using a quartic free energy does not always yield the most predictive coarse-grained model. Moreover, increasing the amount of training data can shift the optimal model complexity to higher values. Our results are promising in that they pave the way for the use of statistical learning as a general tool for materials modeling and discovery.
[en] In a recent experiment at the Trident laser facility, a laser-driven beam of quasimonoenergetic aluminum ions was used to heat solid gold and diamond foils isochorically to 5.5 and 1.7 eV, respectively. Here theoretical calculations are presented that suggest the gold and diamond were heated uniformly by these laser-driven ion beams. According to calculations and SESAME equation-of-state tables, laser-driven aluminum ion beams achievable at Trident, with a finite energy spread of ΔE/E~20%, are expected to heat the targets more uniformly than a beam of 140-MeV aluminum ions with zero energy spread. As a result, the robustness of the expected heating uniformity relative to the changes in the incident ion energy spectra is evaluated, and expected plasma temperatures of various target materials achievable with the current experimental platform are presented
[en] A comprehensive set of dual nuclear product observations provides a snapshot of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules at the time of shock collapse, shortly before the final stages of compression. The collapse of strong convergent shocks at the center of spherical capsules filled with D2 and 3He gas induces D-D and D-3He nuclear production. Temporal and spectral diagnostics of products from both reactions are used to measure shock timing, temperature, and capsule areal density. The density and temperature inferred from these measurements are used to estimate the electron-ion thermal coupling, and demonstrate a lower electron-ion relaxation rate for capsules with lower initial gas density.