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[en] The corrosion resistance of epoxy-coated carbon steel was evaluated. The carbon steel surface was subjected to different treatment methods such as steel grit blasting with different size, steel shot ball blasting and power tool treatment. To study the effect of the treatments, the topology of the treated surface was observed by optical 3D microscopy and a pull-off adhesion test was conducted. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy-coated carbon steel was further examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) combined with hygrothermal cyclic testing. The results of EIS indicated that the epoxy-coated carbon steel treated with steel grit blasting showed an improved corrosion resistance compared to untreated epoxy-coated surfaces or surfaces subjected to shot ball blasting and power tool treatments
[en] In general, pipelines at nuclear power plants are affected by various types of degradation mechanisms and may be ruptured after gradually thinning. FAC (Flow-Accelerated Corrosion) is typical aging mechanism affecting the secondary side piping system. In Korea nuclear power plants, CHECWORKS program have been used for management of wall thinning damages. However, sometimes, CHECWORKS program shows wrong results at the stage of NFA (Network Flow Analysis) in case of complex pipelines. This paper describes the calculation results of pressure drop in a complex pipeline and single line by using the CHECWORKS program and the analysis results are compared with those of engineering calculation results including errors between them
[en] The object of this work is to establish an electrochemical noise(EN) measurement technique combined with a direct current potential drop(DCPD) method for monitoring of localized corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy, and to analyze its mechanism. The electrochemical current and potential noises were measured under various conditions of applied stress to a compact tension specimen in a simulated primary water chemistry of a pressurized water reactor. The amplitude and frequency of the EN signals were evaluated in both time and frequency domains based on a shot noise theory, and then quantitatively analyzed using statistical Weibull distribution function. From the spectral analysis, the effect of the current application in DCPD was found to be effectively excluded from the EN signals generated from the localized corrosion cracking. With the aid of a microstructural analysis, the relationship between EN signals and the localized corrosion cracking mechanism was investigated by comparing the shape parameter of Weibull distribution of a mean time-to-failure
[en] This study was conducted in order to examine the effect of burn damage and the resultant anti-corrosion performance. The breakdown and defect of the paint film caused by burn damage are considered to affect not only the macroscopic appearance but also the adhesive force and the anti-corrosion performance of the paint film. The material of the paint film was epoxy paint that is used most widely for heavy-duty coating, and in order to induce burn damage, heat treatment with a torch was applied to the other side of the paint film. Surface and chemical structure changes according to aging were analyzed using FE-SEM and infrared absorption spectroscopy, and variation in the anti-corrosion performance was analyzed through the AC impedance test.
[en] Corrosion science faces new challenges in various nuclear environments. Three main areas may be identified where increases of knowledge and understanding have been done and are still needed to face the technical needs: (i) the extension of the service time of nuclear power plants from 40 years, as initially planned, to 60 years and probably more as expected now, (ii) the prediction of long term behaviour of metallic materials in nuclear waste disposal where the corrosion processes have to be predicted over large periods of time, some thousands years and more, (iii) the choice of materials for use at very high temperatures as expected in Generation IV power plants in environments like gas (helium), supercritical water, liquid metals or salts. Service time extension, deep geological waste repositories and high temperature reactors sustain researches and developments to model corrosion phenomena at various scales, from atoms to components.
[en] Significant piping wall thinning caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and Erosion-Corrosion (EC) continues to occur, even after the Mihama Power Station unit 3 secondary pipe rupture in 2004, in which workers were seriously injured or died. Nuclear power plants in many countries have experienced FAC and EC-related cases in steam cycle piping systems. Korea has also experienced piping wall thinning cases including thinning in the downstream straight pipe of a check valve in a feedwater pump line, the downstream elbow of a control valve in a feedwater flow control line, and failure of the straight pipe downstream of an orifice in an auxiliary steam return line. Cause analyses were performed by reviewing thickness data using Ultrasonic Techniques (UT) and, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images for the failed pipe, and numerical simulation results for FAC and EC cases in Korea Nuclear Power Plants. It was concluded that the main cause of wall thinning for the downstream pipe of a check valve is FAC caused by water vortex flow due to the internal flow shape of a check valve, the main cause of wall thinning for the downstream elbow of a control valve is FAC caused by a thickness difference with the upstream pipe, and the main cause of wall thinning for the downstream pipe of an orifice is FAC and EC caused by liquid droplets and vortex flow. In order to investigate more cases, additional analyses were performed with the review of a lot of thickness data for inspected pipes. The results showed that pipe wall thinning was also affected by the operating condition of upstream equipment. Management of FAC and EC based on these cases will focus on the downstream piping of abnormal or unusual operated equipment.
[en] Martensitic stainless steel is used when mechanical properties such as high tensile strength and hardness are required. Medium carbon-contained martensitic stainless steel which contains more than 0.2 wt% of carbon should be heat-treated and quenched at the temperature where undissolved carbides are totally dissolved into the matrix. In particular, the dissolution and reprecipitation behaviors of various forms of carbides are affected by such parameters ad heating rate, heating temperature, duration time and cooling rate. This study is to investigate the effects of heat treatment parameters of 14Cr-3Mo martensitic stainless on corrosion resistance and phase transformation in relation to the dissolution and reprecipitation of carbides
[en] This work dealt with the evaluation of galvanic corrosion rate in a corrosion cell having annular gap of 0.5 mm between carbon steel 1018 and alloy 600 as a function of temperature and boron concentration. Temperature and boron concentration were ranged from 110 to 300 .deg. C and 2000∼10000 ppm, respectively. After the operating temperature of the corrosion cell where the electrolyte was injected was attained at setting temperature, galvanic coupling was made and at the same time galvanic current was measured. The galvanic corrosion rate decreased with time, which was described by corrosion product such as protective film as well as boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel with time. From the galvanic current obtained as a function of temperature and boron concentration, it was found that the galvanic corrosion rate decreased with temperature while the corrosion rate increased with boron concentration. The experimental results obtained from galvanic corrosion measurement were explained by adhesive property of corrosion product such as protective film, boric acid deposit formed on the carbon steel wall and dehydration of boric acid to be slightly soluble boric acid phase. Moreover the galvanic corrosion rate calculated using initial galvanic coupling current instead of steady state coupling current was remarked, which could give us relatively closer galvanic corrosion rate to real pressurized water reactor
[en] Effects of the precipitation of σ phase on the metastable pitting as a precursor of stable pitting corrosion and also on the progress of stale pitting of the 25Cr-7Ni-3Mo-0.25N duplex stainless steel wee investigated in chloride solution. Electrochemical potential and current noises of the alloy were measured in 10 % ferric chloride solution (FeCl3) with zero resistance ammeter (ZRA), and then analyzed by power spectral density (PSD) and by corrosion admittance (Ac) spectrum. With aging at 850 .deg. C, the passive film of the alloy was found to get significantly unstable as represented by power spectral density (PSD) and a transition from metastable pitting state to stable one was observed. In the corrosion admittance spectrum, the number of negative Ac corresponding to the state of localized corrosion increased with aging, suggesting that the precipitation of σ phase considerably degraded the passive film by depleting Cr and Mo around it at α/σ or γ/σ phase boundaries, thereby leading to the initiation of the pitting corrosion. However, the Cr and Mo atα/σ or γ/σ phase boundaries which were once depleted due to the precipitation of the σ phase were partly replenished by the diffusion of Cr and Mo from the surrounding matrix with aging time longer. The initiation of pitting seems to be associated with the precipitation density of the σ phase with an effective size needed to induce the sufficient depletion of Cr and Mo around it
[en] Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 has been studied with a C-ring specimen in 1%, 10% and 40% NaOH at 315 .deg. C. SCC test was performed at 200 mV above corrosion potential. Initial stress on the apex of C-ring specimen was varied from 300 MPa to 565 MPa. Materials were heat treated at various temperatures. SCC resistance of Ni-χCr-10Fe alloy increased as the Cr content of the alloy increased if the density of an intergranular carbide were comparable. SCC resistance of Alloy 600 increased in caustic solution as the Cr concentration at the product of coverage of an intergranular carbide in grain boundary, intergranular carbide small grain size and without intergranular carbide was most susceptible to SCC. TT Alloy 690 was most resistance to SCC due to the high value of the product of coverage of an intergranular carbide in grain boundary, intergranular carbide thickness and Cr concentration at grain boundary. Dependency of SCC rate on stress and NaOH concentration was obtained