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[en] New dentary material of Percrocuta carnifex (Pilgrim, 1913) from the Nagri Formation ofHasnot, Pakistan, is described. Specimens of this species from the Siwalik continental deposits described by previous authors are discussed in detail. In addition to the taxonomic description of the new material, the occurrence and stratigraphic position of this species within the Siwalik Hills are re-evaluated. Except for the holotype, the specimens assigned to this species are very fragmentary. The newly discovered material, a right mandibular ramus containing teeth, is the best preserved specimen found to date. The comparative analysis, based on tooth morphology and dimensions of previously reported specimens and of the specimen studied here, suggests that this species is restricted to the Chinji and Nagri formations. Finally, the dental morphological features of the studied specimen and those of other species of Percrocuta are compared, and then the phylogenetic relationship between these species is discussed. The described specimen is thus important for the taxonomic, stratigraphic and phylogenetic knowledge of P. carnifex from the Siwaliks.
[en] Olivine hornblendites (cortlandtites) form part of the Montnegre mafic complex related to late-Variscan I-type granitoids in the Catalan Coastal Ranges. Two generations of spinel are present in these hornblendites: Spl1 forms euhedral crystals included in both olivine and Spl2. Spl2 forms euhedral to anhedral crystals associated with phlogopite and fibrous colourless amphibole forming pseudomorphs after olivine. Compositions of Spl1 are picotite-Al chromite (Fe#: 77.78-66.60; Cr#: 30.12-52.22; Fe3+/R3+: 6.99-21.89; 0.10< TiO2%< 0.62). Compositions of Spl2 are pleonaste (Fe#: 37.86-52.12; Cr#: 1.00-15.45; Fe3+/R3+: 0.31-5.21; TiO2% <0.10%). The two types of spinel follow a CrAl trend, mainly due to the substitution (Fe2+)-1Cr-1= MgAl, which is interpreted as the result of mixing between two different mantle-derived melts. The compositions of early Spl1 crystals included in olivine are characteristic of Al-rich basalts. More aluminous Spl2 would result from reaction of olivine with a less evolved, Al and K-rich mantle-derived melt after new refilling of the magma chamber or channel. As a whole, spinels from similar examples of Variscan olivine hronblendites also follow a CrAl trend with high Fe# and starting at higher Cr# than other trends of this type. Cr# heterogeneity in the early spinels from these Variscan hornblendites would be inherited from the variable Al content of the mafic melts involved in their genesis.
[en] This paper presents a new model of the subsurface structure of the eastern Jaca flexural basin of the west-central southern Pyrenees, by means of subsurface structural maps and four new balanced cross-sections. The study is based on the interpretation of a set of publicly available seismic reflection profiles tied to deep exploration well logs, which constitute a unique database in the southern Pyrenees associated to the gas discovery of the Serrablo field. Investigation of the deep basin structure highlights strong mechanical-stratigraphic contrasts between basement, a competent Upper Cretaceous-Eocene carbonate sequence in the deep basin and a weak infill of Eocene to lower Miocene synorogenic clastic deposits. These contrasts promote the occurrence of various décollement levels and a decoupled style of deformation between intervals of different competence. A contour map for the top of basement reveals a complex structure with lateral variations of the number of thrusts and the displacement on these and local transverse elements. Between the Gavarnie thrust at the southern edge of the Axial Zone and the Guarga thrust at the leading edge of the basement thrust system, three main other basement thrusts are defined below the north-eastern Jaca Basin, from South to North the Fiscal, Yésero and Broto thrusts. In the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary cover, two low-angle thrusts are mapped in the subsurface across the Upper Cretaceous-Eocene carbonates: i) the deep Oturia thrust, connected upsection to the emerging Oturia thrust known at the surface, and ii) the deep Jaca thrust, drilled by the Serrablo wells, and connected to the emerging Jaca thrust and Yebra de Basa anticline through a zone of disharmonic deformation. The deduced subsurface geometrical relationships are consistent with the connection of the Gavarnie and Broto basement thrusts to the Priabonian-Rupelian Oturia and Jaca thrusts while the younger Yésero, Fiscal and Guarga basement thrusts emerge at the South Pyrenean thrust front of the Sierras Exteriores, active until the early Miocene. This study highlights the complex structural pattern that characterizes the deep structure of the South Pyrenean basin and the role of disharmonic deformation that challenges the resolution of the deeper thrust system without the help of seismic profiles.
[en] Chicxulub Crater, formed ~66Ma ago by an asteroid impact on the southern Gulf of Mexico, is the best preserved of the three large multi-ring basins in the terrestrial record. The crater structure is characterized by a semi-circular concentric ring pattern, marking the crater basin, peak ring, terrace zone and basement uplift. Analysis of a grid of 19 seismic reflection profiles using seismic attributes, marker horizons, contour surfaces and 3-D views is used to investigate the stratigraphy of the central zone. We used interactive software and routine applications to map the impact breccias, breccia-carbonate contact and post-impact carbonates. Four horizons marked by high-amplitude reflectors representing high-impedance contrasts were identified and laterally correlated in the seismic images. Complex trace attribute analysis was applied for petrophysical characterization. Surface contour maps of base and top of stratigraphic packages were constructed, which mapped the impactites and post- and pre-impact carbonate stratigraphy. Basin floor, marked by the contact between the impact breccias and overlying carbonates is shown by laterally discontinuous high-amplitude reflectors. Discontinuous scattered reflectors interpreted as the upper breccias beneath the crater floor, have an average thickness of ~300msm. The Paleogene sedimentary units are characterized by multiple reflectors with lateral continuity, which contrast with the seismic response of underlying breccias. The basal Paleocene sediments follow the basin floor relief. Upwards in the section, the carbonate strata are characterized by horizontal reflectors, which are interrupted by a regional unconformity. Onlap/downlap packages over the unconformity record a period of sea level change.
[en] The scheelite skarn from Los Santos and the W-Au veins from El Cabaco district, located in the Spanish Central System Batholith (SCSB), are some of the best-known tungsten ore deposits in Spain. Uraninite is an accessory mineral in both deposits, which underwent several hydrothermal flow events. Chemical and textural characteristics, as well as electron microprobe U-Th-Pb uraninite chemical data from the different stages of the skarn and the vein-type mineralizations, are presented here. Based on these data the uraninite was able to be classified into two groups. Group I uraninite has an octahedral habit and occurs as inclusions in K-feldspar relicts of the leucogranite related to Los Santos skarn formation. It shows high Th (6.95 to 8.51wt.% ThO2) and high Rare Earth Elements (REEs) contents (0.55 to 1.38wt.% ∑REE2O3). Group II uraninite occurs i) associated to El Cabaco granite, in a greenish selvage-style greisen and its reddish envelope and in the mineralized rimming quartz veins and ii) in Los Santos high-temperature endoskarn and anorthite skarn, where it is associated with U-rich mica. This uraninite type has lower Th and ∑REE2O3contents than Group-I uraninite. The mineral chemistry and the assemblage and textural relationships suggest that Group-I uraninite is magmatic and the attained U-Th-Pb chemical age of 300±4Ma is interpreted as the magmatic age of the skarn-forming aplite granites in the western part of the SCSB. Group-II uraninite includes two events: i) hydrothermal uraninite, which yields an age of 295±2Ma, dates a strong alkali mobilization and early tungsten deposition and ii) a later hydrothermal process, around 287±4Ma, that resulted in sulfides and late scheelite precipitation and widespread silicification. Finally, the gold deposition is younger than this silicification according to textural criteria. Therefore, W-Au deposits in the western part of the SCSB were formed by superposition of several processes that took place some 15Ma after the skarn-forming granite crystallized. Comparable W, W-Au and U deposits in the Variscan orogenic belt show a similar timing of hydrothermal events, suggesting that the hydrothermal history was controlled by large-scale Late-Variscan tectonic processes.
[en] Excellent dolomite exposures are observed in the eastern Salt Range (Pakistan), where the Cambrian Jutana Formation consists of two distinct units (i.e. oolitic – pisolitic unit and massive dolomite unit). Field observations revealed that the lower, oolitic-pisolitic unit mostly comprises medium to thick bedded, interlayered brown yellowish dolostone containing ooids/pisoids and faunal assemblages, and grey whitish sandstone with distinct depositional sedimentary features (i.e. trough-, herringbone- and hhummocky crossbedding). The upper massive dolostone unit consists of thick bedded to massive dolostone. These two units are separated by shale. Petrographic studies identified three dolomite types, which include: fine crystalline dolomite (Dol. I), medium-coarse crystalline dolomite (Dol. II) and fracture associated, coarse crystalline dolomite (Dol. III). Stable isotope studies indicate less depleted δ18O values for Dol. I (-6.44 to -3.76‰V-PDB), slightly depleted δ18O values for Dol. II (-7.73 to -5.24‰V-PDB) and more depleted δ18O values for Dol. III (-7.29 to -7.20‰V-PDB). The δ13C values of the three dolomite phases are well within the range of Cambrian sea-water signatures. Furthermore, δ26Mg-δ25Mg signatures (Dol. I; δ26Mg=-1.19 to -1.67, δ25Mg=-0.61 to -0.86 and Dol. II; δ26Mg=-1.34 to -1.59, δ25Mg=-0.70 to -0.83) indicate three phases of dolomitization in different diagenetic settings. First, an initial stage of dolomitization during the early Cambrian resulted from altered marine, Mg-rich fluids associated with the mixing zone mechanism. Second, a late stage of dolomitization was associated with burial during late Permian. A third dolomitization phase was related to post-Eocene times.
[en] The Valdepeñas pluton is the easternmost outcrop of the Cáceres-Valdepeñas magmatic alignment (southern Central Iberian Zone). This massif is constituted by a cordierite-bearing porphyritic monzogranite and may be grouped within the so-called “Serie Mixta” granitoids. The Valdepeñas monzogranite is of magnesian [FeOt/(FeOt+MgO)~0.76], alkali-calcic [(Na2O+K2O)–CaO=7.8–8.5] and peraluminous (A/CNK=1.14–1.20). Multielemental- and REE-normalized patterns are comparable to those of similar rocks in the Nisa- Alburquerque-Los Pedroches magmatic alignment, and slightly differ from those of the Montes de Toledo batholith, both in the southern Central Iberian Zone. The U-Pb zircon age of 303±3Ma is consistent with the late-orogenic character of the intrusion and is in accordance with most of the granitic peraluminous intrusions in the southern Central Iberian Zone. 86Sr/87Sr300Ma ratios (0.707424–0.711253), εNd300Mavalues (-5.53 to -6.68) and whole-rock major and trace element compositions of the studied rocks, suggest that the parental magma of the Valdepeñas monzogranite could derive from a crustal metaigneous source. The U-Pb ages (552–650Ma) of inherited zircon cores found in Valdepeñas monzogranite samples match those often found in Lower Paleozoic metavolcanics and granitic orthogneisses of Central Iberia and, furthermore, point to Upper Neoproterozoic metaigneous basement rocks as possible protoliths at the magma source. Based on the solubility of monazite in peraluminous melts, the estimated emplacement temperature of the studied monzogranite is 742–762ºC. The results obtained in this work would contribute to a better understanding of the origin of the “Serie Mixta” granitoids.
[en] In this short note, we present the first data on stable isotope composition of the oilfield waters from Carabobo area of the Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco “Hugo Chávez” (Orinoco Oil Belt). From a chemical point of view, the formation waters show a main Na-Cl level (TDS up to 30g/l) with a dilution trend toward Na-HCO3 composition (down to 1g/l). Until now, such a clear net chemical compositional trend was ascribed to a meteoric dilution (fresh/ brackish bicarbonate) of the seawater end member (the saltiest chloride). The isotope results of this study reveal that the seawater mother water was modified during a high-temperature thrusting event (120–125°C), forming 18O-enriched diagenetic water (up to +4‰), which was diluted in recent times by glacial meltwater and presentday meteoric water. The hypothetical presence of flood by a meteoric paleo-water also offers new hints to explain the low API gravity (<10°API biodegraded, extra heavy oil) and composition of the local crude.
[en] The Iberian Chain is a complex intraplate fold-and-thrust belt resulting from the convergence between the Eurasian, Iberian and African plates during the late Eocene to the Miocene. The main trend of its contractional structures is NW-SE, but E-W, NE-SW and N-S-trending structures are also present. The boundaries of the chain with its surrounding foreland basins are always thrusts. The North-Iberian Thrust separates the chain from the Ebro Basin to the North, while the Serranía de Cuenca Thrust makes the SE boundary of the chain, separating it from the Tajo Basin and La Mancha foreland areas. Between these thrusts, the contractional structure is basement-involved, while South of the Serranía de Cuenca Thrust only Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks are involved in the thrust-system, detached in the evaporitic Triassic materials. Two parts can be differentiated considering the major structure of the chain. The western and central areas hold two major anticlinoriums separated by the Almazán Synclinorium. East of the Teruel Depression, E-Wstriking N-verging thrusts in the North, and NW-SE-striking S-verging thrusts in the center and South are the dominant structures. The crust thickened during the Cenozoic contraction generating a mean crustal thickening of about 5km. The horizontal shortening obtained from cross-sections is 32km, and from a density-gravity section of 57.5km. These two values may be considered end values. The relief of the Iberian Chain has a strong areal coincidence with the contractional structures and the thickened crust, indicating that they are genetically related.
[en] One of the most outstanding characteristics of some granodioritic to granitic rocks is the presence of K-feldspar megacrysts. For instance, granodiorites and monzogranites of the Spanish Central System batholith present variable amounts of large (up to 10cm in length) euhedral K-feldspar crystals. The porphyritic textures, the euhedral shape, the alignment of plagioclase and biotite inclusions and the magmatic fabrics point to a magmatic origin for these megacrysts. This work presents a phase equilibria study in a high-K2O granodioritic system. A series of experiments were conducted with a granodioritic composition (GEMbiot) to study the crystallization sequence at the emplacement conditions in the Gredos massif, i.e. 4 H2O wt.% and 0.4GPa. Experimental results show that orthopiroxene is the liquidus phase at 1010ºC, which reacts with the H2O-rich melt to stabilize biotite between 980 and 940ºC. Plagioclase crystallizes at around 910ºC, and K-feldspar crystallizes in the matrix between 750 and 700ºC when the crystal fraction is around 0.5. However, at 850 ºC, a pelite-doped experiment shows euhedral K-feldspar (≈5vol%) in both the reactive xenolith domain together with cordierite and the granodioritic domain, where the K2O wt.% rise from 4.5 in the normal experiment to 5.9 in the doped experiment. These results suggest that the bulk-assimilation process promotes the bulk and heterogeneous K2O enrichment in a huge granodioritic magma volume, which triggers an early crystallization of K-feldspar megacrysts. Because of this early crystallization of the megacrysts, the magmatic foliations defined by K-feldspar megacrysts are formed during and after the emplacement processes and are highly influenced by tectonic kinematics.