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[en] The pollutants (Rn, CH, CO, HS, radioactive gas from radiolysis) were generated from the process of construction and operation of underground repository, and after disposal of low-intermediate radioactive waste inside there must be controlled by a ventilation system to distribute them in area where enough air is supported. Therefore, a suitable technical approach is needed especially at an underground repository that is equipped with many entry tunnels, storage tunnels, exhaust-blowing tunnels, and vertical shafts in complicated network form. For the technical approach of such a ventilation system, WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) in U. S. and SFR (Slutforvar for Reaktoravfall) low-intermediate radioactive waste repository in Sweden were selected as the models, for calculating the required air quantity, organizing a ventilation network considering cross section, length, surface roughness of the air passage, and describing a calculation of resistance of each circuit. Based on these procedures, a best suited ventilation system was completed with designing proper capacity of fans and operating plan of vertical shafts. As a result of comparing the two repositories based on the geometry dimensions and ventilation facility equipment operation, more parallel circuit as in WIPP, brought decrease in resistance for entire system leading to reduce of operating costs, and the larger cross-sectional area of the SFR the greater the percentage of disposal capacity. Accordingly, the mixture of parallel circuit of WIPP repository for reducing resistance and SFR repository formation for enlargement of disposal capacity
[en] In this study, uranium migration experiments have been performed using a natural groundwater and a granite core with natural fractures in a glove-box constructed to simulate an appropriate subsurface environment. Groundwater flow experiments using the non-sorbing anionic tracer Br were carried out to analyze the flow properties of groundwater through the fracture of the granite core. The result of the uranium migration experiment showed a breakthrough curve similar to that of the non-sorbing Br. This result may imply that uranium migrates as anionic complexes through the rock fracture since uranium can form carbonate complexes at a given groundwater condition. The distribution coefficient Kd of the uranium between the groundwater and the fracture filling material was obtained as low as 2.7 mL/g from a batch sorption experiment. This result agrees well with the result from the migration experiment, showing a faster elution of the uranium through the rock fracture. In order to analyze retardation properties of the uranium through the rock fracture, the retardation factor Rd (∼ 16.2) was obtained by using the Kd obtained from the batch sorption experiment and it was compared with the Rd (∼ 14.3) obtained by using the result from the uranium migration experiment. The values obtained from the both experiments were very similar to each other. This reveals that the retardation of the uranium is mainly occurred by the fracture filling material when the uranium migrates through the fracture of a granite core
[en] Hyperalkaline groundwater formed by groundwater-cement components and its reaction with bedrock in a nuclear waste repository were simulated by geochemical modeling. The result of groundwater-cement components reaction showed that the pH of water was 13.3 and the precipitated minerals were Brucite, Katoite, Calcium Silicate Hydrate(CSH1.1), Ettringite, Hematite, and Portlandite. The result of interaction between such minerals and groundwater sampled in Gyeongju area also showed that the pH of groundwater reached 12.4. Interaction between such hyperalkaline groundwater and granite was simulated by kinetic model during 103 years. This result showed that the final pH of groundwater reached 11.2 and the variation of pH was controlled by dissolution/precipitation of silicate and CSH minerals. Groundwater quality was also determined by dissolution/precipitation of silicate, CSH, oxide minerals. Our results show that geochemical modeling of long-term hyperalkaline groundwater and rock interaction can contribute to the safety assessment of engineered barrier by predicting geochemical condition in repository site
[en] Fission products of DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel, irradiated in HANARO research reactor with 61 kW/m of maximum linear power and 1,770 MWd/tU of average burn-up, was characterized by EPMA (Electron Probe Micro Analyzer). In order to find accurate characterization, the analysis results by EPMA of fresh simulated DUPIC fuel containing fission products as chemicals were compared with that of wet chemical analysis. The metallic precipitates observed at the center of the fresh simulated DUPIC fuel were about 1 μm in size and their major components by EPMA were Mo-53.89 at.%, Ru-37.40 at.%, and Pd+Rh-8.71 at.%. Established procedure through the fresh simulated DUPIC fuel was applied to the irradiated DUPIC fuel. Observed size of metallic precipitates were 2-2.5 μm and their compositions were Mo-47.34 at.%, Ru-46 at.%, and Pd+Rh-6.65 at.%. What are uncommon things for this experiment, special treatment for improving the conductivity was attempted to the specimen and the conditions of exact irradiation of electron beam to small metallic precipitate were suggested.
[en] Natural ventilation in radioactive waste repositories is considered to be less efficient than mechanically forced ventilation for the repository working environment and hygiene and safety of the public at large, for example, controlling the exposure of airborne radioactive particulate matter. It is, however, considered to play an important role and may be fairly efficient for maintaining environmental conditions of the repository over the duration of its lifetime, for example, moisture content and radon (Rn) gas elimination in repository. This paper describes the feasibility of using natural ventilation which can be generated in the repository itself, depending on the conditions of the natural environment during the periods of repository construction and operation. Evidences from natural cave analogues, actual measurements of natural ventilation pressures in mountain traffic tunnels with vertical shafts, and calculations of airflow rates with given natural ventilation pressures indicate possible benefits from passive ventilation for the prospective Korean radioactive waste repository. Natural ventilation may provide engineers with a cost-efficient method for heat and moisture transfer, and radon (Rn) gas elimination in a radioactive waste repository. The overall thermal performance of the repository may be improved. The dry-out period may be extended, and the seepage flux likely would be decreased.
[en] Thermal assessment of a new CANDU spent fuel disposal system, which improves the retrievability of the spent fuel and enhances the densification factor compared with the Korean Reference disposal System, is carried out in this study. The canisters for CANDU spent fuels are stored for long term and cooled by natural convection in the proposed disposal system for the retrievability. The steady state thermal analyses for proposed CANDU disposal system are carried out with the ANSYS 10.0 CFX code. The thermal analyses are performed through two steps. At the first step, the sensitivity of the disposal tunnel spacing is analysed. The differences of maximum temperatures by several tunnel spacings are calculated at three points in the disposal tunnel. The result shows that the differences of the temperature at the three points are almost negligible because 99% of the decay heat is removed by natural convection. At the second procedure, 60 m tunnel spacing with a ventilation system instead of natural convection is considered. The result is applied to the calculation of the canister surface temperature in disposal tunnel as boundary conditions. Consequently, the average and the maximum surface temperature of disposal canisters are 79.9 .deg. C and 119 .deg. C, respectively. The inner maximum temperature of a basket in the disposal canister is calculated as 140.9 .deg. C. The maximum temperature of the basket meets the thermal requirement for the CANDU spent fuel cladding.
[en] As a follow up to the Agenda 21's policy statement for safe management of radioactive waste adopted at Rio Conference held in 1992, the UN invited the IAEA to develop and implement indicators of sustainable development for the management of radioactive waste. The IAEA finalized the indicators in 2002, and is planning to calculate the member states' values of indicators in connection with operation of its Net-Enabled Waste Management Database system. In this paper, the basis for introducing the indicators into the radioactive waste management was analyzed, and calculation methodology and standard assessment procedure were simply depicted. In addition, a series of innate limitations in calculation and comparison of the indicators was analyzed. According to the proposed standard procedure, the indicators for a few major countries including Korea were calculated and compared, by use of each country's radioactive waste management framework and its practices. In addition, a series of measures increasing the values of the indicators was derived so as to enhance the sustainability of domestic radioactive waste management program.
[en] A waste container, one of the key components of a multi-barrier system in a potential high level radioactive waste (HLW) repository in Korea ensures the mechanical stability against the lithostatic pressure of a deep geologic medium and the swelling pressure of the bentonite buffer. Also, it delays potential release of radionuclides for a certain period of time, before it is corroded by intruding impurities. Even though the material of a waste container is carefully chosen and its manufacturing processes are under quality assurance processes, there is a possibility of initial defects in a waste container during manufacturing. Also, during the deposition of a waste container in a repository, there is a chance of an incident affecting the integrity of a waste container. In this study, the appropriate Features, Events, and Processes (FEP's) to describe these incidents and the associated scenario on radionuclide release from a container to the biosphere are developed. Then the total system performance assessment on the Initial waste Container Failure (ICF) scenario was carried out by the MASCOT-K, one of the probabilistic safety assessment tools KAERI has developed. Results show that for the data set used in this paper, the annual individual dose for the ICF scenario meets the Korean regulation on the post closure radiological safety of a repository.
[en] In the stage of conceptual design for the construction and operation of the geologic repository for radioactive wastes, it is important to consider a repository ventilation system which serves the repository working environment, hygiene and safety of the public at large, and will allow safe maintenance like moisture content elimination in repository for the duration of the repositories life, construction/operation/closure, also allowing safe waste transportation and emplacement. This paper describes the possible ventilation system design criteria and requirements for the prospective Korean radioactive waste repositories with emphasis on the underground rock cavity disposal method in the both cases of low and medium-level and high-level wastes. It was found that the most important concept is separate ventilation systems for the construction (development) and waste emplacement (storage) activities. In addition, ventilation network system modeling, natural ventilation, ventilation monitoring systems and real time ventilation simulation, and fire simulation and emergency system in the repository are briefly discussed.
[en] Demand on the nuclear energy in East Asian countries has been grown rapidly to support economic development. After 9.11, nuclear security has become the world wide issue. In addition, unlike to other region, some countries are considering the introduction of nuclear power plants. To meet the challenges a new regional multilateral nuclear approach is proposed aiming at assurance of supply and non -proliferation. The new proposal is based on the principles of confidence building, volunteering, and incentives. The step wise approach is recommended to implement the multilateral system in East Asia.