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[en] Although rotational seismology has progressed in recent decades, the links between rotational ground motion and site soil conditions are poorly documented. New experiments were performed on Kefalonia Island (Greece) following two large earthquakes (MW = 6.0, MW = 5.9) in early 2014 on two well-characterized sites (soft soil, VS30 = 250 m/s; rock, VS30 = 830 m/s, VS30 being harmonic average shear-wave velocity between 0 and 30 m depth). These earthquakes led to large six-component (three translations and three rotations) datasets of hundreds of well-recorded events. The relationship between peak translational acceleration versus peak rotational velocity is found sensitive to the site conditions mainly for the rotation around the vertical axis (torsion; dominated by Love waves): the stiffer the soil, the lower the torsion, for a given level of translational acceleration. For rotation around the horizontal axes (rocking; dominated by Rayleigh waves), this acceleration/rotation relationship exhibits much weaker differences between soft and rock sites. Using only the rotation sensor, an estimate of the Love-to-Rayleigh energy ratios could be carried out and provided the same results as previous studies that have analyzed the Love- and Rayleigh-wave energy proportions using data from translational arrays deployed at the same two sites. The coupling of translational and rotational measurements appears to be useful, not only for direct applications of engineering seismology, but also to investigate the composition of the wavefield, while avoiding deployment of dense arrays. The availability of new, low-noise rotation sensors that are easy to deploy in the field is of great interest and should extend the use of rotation sensors and expand their possible applications. (authors)
[en] After publication of this work (Fukushima et al. 2017) some errors were noticed. In Figures 2b, 2c and 2f the letters ‘N’, ‘N’ and ‘S’ appear in the images, respectively. The original article was corrected. The publisher apologises for these errors.
[en] The April 27, 2016 eruption sequence at White Island was comprised of 6 discrete eruptive events that occurred over a 35-min period. Seismicity included three episodes of VLP activity: the first occurring ~ 2 h and a second occurring 10 min prior to the first eruption. A third larger VLP event occurred just prior to the fourth eruption. A VLP source depth of 800–1000 m below the vent is obtained from an analysis of the waveform semblance, and a volumetric source is obtained from waveform inversion of the largest VLP event. Lag times between VLP occurrence and eruption onsets provide an opportunity to examine gas migration and stress transfer models as potential triggers to the eruptive activity. Plausible lag times for a deep gas pulse to the surface are obtained by application of a TOUGH2 computational model which suggests propagation times of 0.25–1.9 m/s and are informed by previously measured White Island rock porosities and permeabilities. Results suggest that pre-eruption VLP may be plausibly linked to advection of gas from the VLP source at a magmatic carapace located ~ 800–1000 m depth. Alternatively, the large VLP that occurred just prior to the fourth eruption may be linked to a quasi-dynamic or quasi-static stress perturbation. .
[en] Analysis of 163 isolated substorms showed that their intensity quantified as a maximum absolute value of the AL index increases with an increase in the velocity and number density of the solar wind plasma and hence its dynamic pressure. Most of the coupling functions describing the energy loading to the magnetosphere, e.g., the Kan–Lee electric field (EKL) and the Newell factor (dΦ/dt), do not include the dynamic pressure as an input parameter. Having examined the correlation between these functions and the dynamic pressure, we found that, surprisingly, while almost uncorrelated for any arbitrary time interval, both EKL and dΦ/dt correlate with the dynamic pressure within 1 h before the onset of isolated substorms. That is, an increase in the solar wind dynamic pressure is associated with an increase in the solar wind driving before the onset. We assume that the increase in the dynamic pressure as early as before substorm growth path creates the conditions inside the magnetosphere that impede the occurrence of substorms and increase the threshold for the instability leading to expansion onset, forcing the accumulation of greater amount of energy in the magnetosphere. This energy is released during substorm expansion, producing a more intense magnetic bay. .
[en] Infragravity waves are surface gravity waves in the ocean with periods longer than approximately 30 s. Infragravity waves propagate transoceanic distances and, because of their long wavelengths, provide a mechanism for coupling wave processes in the ocean, atmosphere, and the solid Earth. Here, we present a strict physical justification for the hypothesis that background ocean waves may generate waves in the upper atmosphere. We show that, at frequencies below a certain transition frequency of about 3 mHz, infragravity waves continuously radiate their energy into the upper atmosphere in the form of acoustic-gravity waves. Based on ionospheric observations and estimates of the fluxes of the mechanical energy and momentum from the deep ocean, we conclude that acoustic-gravity waves of oceanic origin may have an observable impact on the upper atmosphere. We anticipate our work to be a starting point for a detailed analysis of global manifestations of the ocean-generated background acoustic-gravity waves.
[en] We describe an automated technique to determine parameters of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) using the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) high frequency (HF) radar data. The technique is based on the analysis of minimum ground backscatter range variations corresponding to different radar beams. Using this technique, we processed the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar data for 2011 and revealed statistical distributions of medium-scale TID (MSTID) azimuth and apparent horizontal velocity. We found four peaks with a distinct diurnal and seasonal dependence in the MSTID azimuth occurrence rate distributions. Northeast MSTID azimuths (20° to 50°) are typical of the summer and equinox morning hours; southeast azimuths (100° to 140°) prevail in the winter daytime; southwest azimuths (190° to 220°) are typical mostly in the summer and equinox nighttime and in the equinox evening; northwest azimuths (280° to 320°) are typical of the summer daytime and evening. The apparent horizontal velocities are generally within the 100 to 160 m/s range. The obtained results agree well with earlier studies by other researchers. However, there are also certain differences. The summer daytime northwestward MSTIDs are not indicated in the earlier studies. The nighttime horizontal velocities are 1.5 to 2 times higher than those in the daytime. Furthermore, winter velocity values are about 1.5 times higher than those in other seasons. These differences might be associated with the peculiarities of the data recorded by different facilities, or the features of the processing techniques, and require further investigation for their interpretation.