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[en] GaAs-class strained superlattice (SSL) photocathodes can provide electron beams with electron spin polarization (ESP) exceeding the theoretical maximum 50% of bulk GaAs. In this paper, we describe the evaluation of a strained superlattice structure composed of GaAsSb/AlGaAs and grown on a GaAs substrate. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations show GaAsSb/AlGaAs SSL structures have the largest heavy-hole and light-hole energy splitting of all existing GaAs-class SSL structures, which should lead to the highest initial ESP. Five GaAsSb/AlGaAs SSL photocathode samples with different constituent species concentrations, number of layer pairs, and layer thicknesses were fabricated and evaluated. Here, the highest ESP was ~ 77% obtained from a photocathode based on the GaAsSb0.15/Al0.38GaAs (1.55/4.1nm ×15 layer pairs) SSL structure.
[en] We use the two-temperature model in molecular dynamic simulations of 150 keV Ni ion cascades in nickel and nickel-based alloys to investigate the effect of the energy exchange between the atomic and the electronic systems during the primary stages of radiation damage. We find that the electron-phonon interactions result in a smaller amount of defects and affect the cluster formation, resulting in smaller clusters. These results indicate that ignoring the local heating due to the electrons results in the overestimation of the amount of damage and the size of the defect clusters. A comparison of the average defect production to the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) prediction over a range of energies is provided.
[en] Explosive HMX particles are similar in morphology and chemistry to RDX particles, the main constituent of Composition B-3 (Comp B-3). This suggests molten HMX-TNT formulations may show Bingham plasticity, much like recent studies have shown for Comp B-3. Here a Bingham plastic viscosity model, including yield stress and shear thinning, is presented for octol (70/30wt% HMX/TNT) as a function of HMX particle volume fraction. The effect of HMX dissolution into molten TNT is included in this analysis.
[en] In this paper, we use the inelastic thermal spike model for insulators and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the effects of pre-existing damage on the energy dissipation and structural alterations in KTaO_3 under irradiation with 21 MeV Ni ions. Our results reveal a synergy between the pre-existing defects and the electronic energy loss, indicating that the defects play an important role on the energy deposition in the system. Our findings highlight the need for better understanding on the role of defects in electronic energy dissipation and the coupling of the electronic and atomic subsystems.
[en] Experimental investigations into the characteristics of laser-induced plasmas indicate that LIBS provides a relatively inexpensive and easily replicable laboratory technique to isolate and measure reactions germane to understanding aspects of high-explosive detonations under controlled conditions. Furthermore, we examine spectral signatures and derived physical parameters following laser ablation of aluminum, graphite and laser-sparked air as they relate to those observed following detonation of high explosives and as they relate to shocked air. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) reliably correlates reactions involving atomic Al and aluminum monoxide (AlO) with respect to both emission spectra and temperatures, as compared to small- and large-scale high-explosive detonations. Atomic Al and AlO resulting from laser ablation and a cited small-scale study, decay within ~10 -5 s, roughly 100 times faster than the Al and AlO decay rates (~10 -3 s) observed following the large-scale detonation of an Al-encased explosive. Temperatures and species produced in laser-sparked air are compared to those produced with laser ablated graphite in air. With graphite present, CN is dominant relative to N 2 + . Thus, in studies where the height of the ablating laser's focus was altered relative to the surface of the graphite substrate, CN concentration was found to decrease with laser focus below the graphite surface, indicating that laser intensity is a critical factor in the production of CN, via reactive nitrogen.
[en] The out of plane electrical conductivity of highly anisotropic Bi 2Te 3 films grown via electro-deposition process was determined using four probe current-voltage measurements performed on 4.6 - 7.2 μm thickness Bi 2Te 3 mesa structures with 80 - 120 μm diameters sandwiched between metallic film electrodes. A three-dimensional finite element model was used to predict the electric field distribution in the measured structures and take into account the non-uniform distribution of the current in the electrodes in the vicinity of the probes. The finite-element modeling shows that significant errors could arise in the measured film electrical conductivity if simpler one-dimensional models are employed. In conclusion, a high electrical conductivity of (3.2 ± 0.4) · 10 5S/m is reported along the out of plane direction for Bi 2Te 3 films highly oriented in the [1 1 0] direction. Authors:
[en] Here, Fe-Si electric steel is the most widely used soft magnetic material in electric machines and transformers. Increasing the silicon content from 3.2 wt.% to 6.5 wt.% brings about large improvement in the magnetic and electrical properties. However, 6.5 wt.% silicon steel is inherited with brittleness owing to the formation of B2 and D03 ordered phase. To obtain ductility in Fe-6.5wt.% silicon steel, the ordered phase has to be bypassed with methods like rapid cooling. In present paper, the effect of cooling rate on magnetic and mechanical properties of Fe-6.5wt.% silicon steel is studied by tuning the wheel speed during melt spinning process. The cooling rate significantly alters the ordering and microstructure, and thus the mechanical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction data shows that D03 ordering was fully suppressed at high wheel speeds but starts to nucleate at 10m/s and below, which correlates with the increase of Young’s modulus towards low wheel speeds as tested by nanoindentation. The grain sizes of the ribbons on the wheel side decrease with increasing wheel speeds, ranging from ~100 μm at 1m/s to ~8 μm at 30m/s, which lead to changes in coercivity.
[en] Scandium thin films of 5-30 nm thickness deposited on clean W(100) surfaces de-wet from the tungsten surface when heated to temperatures < 0.5 Tmelt. The dewetting temperature and the resulting droplet size are a function of the initial scandium film thickness.
[en] The magnetic vortex nucleation process in nanometer- and micrometer-sized magnetic disks undergoes several phases with distinct spin configurations called the nucleation states. Before formation of the final vortex state, small submicron disks typically proceed through the so-called C-state while the larger micron-sized disks proceed through the more complicated vortex-pair state or the buckling state. This work classifies the nucleation states using micromagnetic simulations and provides evidence for the stability of vortex-pair and buckling states in static magnetic fields using magnetic imaging techniques and electrical transport measurements. Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy and Magnetic Transmission X-ray Microscopy are employed to reveal the details of spin configuration in each of the nucleation states. We further show that it is possible to unambiguously identify these states by electrical measurements via the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Combination of the electrical transport and magnetic imaging techniques confirms stability of a vortex-antivortex-vortex spin configuration which emerges from the buckling state in static magnetic fields.
[en] A novel method of transferring large-area graphene sheets onto a variety of substrates using Formvar (polyvinyl formal) is presented. Due to the ease at which formvar can be dissolved in chloroform this method allows for a consistent, a clean, and a more rapid transfer than other techniques including the PMMA assisted one. This novel transfer method is demonstrated by transferring large-area graphene onto a range of substrates including commercial TEM grids, silicon dioxide and glass. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of graphene and characterize the morphological properties of the large-area sheets. SEM and AFM analyses demonstrated the effectiveness of our rapid transfer technique for clean crystalline large-area graphene sheets. The removal of the sacrificial polymer was found to be one to two orders of magnitude faster than PMMA methods. Ultimately this facile transfer technique offers new opportunities for a wide range of applications for large-area graphene through the utilization of a new sacrificial polymer.