|Sort by: date | relevance|
Purpose of ReviewDual-energy CT (DECT) is a recently introduced computed tomography (CT) technique with the ability to acquire data in multiple energies allowing energy-based material separation based on energy-dependent attenuation profiles of specific materials.
Recent FindingsThere are several clinical applications of DECT that are relevant in pancreatic imaging which will be reviewed in this article. Pathologies of the pancreas can vary widely in their clinical significance and can be subtle and difficult to detect. In this article, we review the current literature on DECT in pancreatic imaging, specifically in the evaluation of benign and malignant pathologic conditions of the pancreas, including inflammatory, neoplastic, and vascular disorders, as well as in the assessment of traumatic injuries.
SummaryThis paper will review the clinical implementation and application of DECT in pancreatic imaging, thereby allowing for improved detection and characterization of various pancreatic pathologies.
Purpose of ReviewComputed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the imaging modality of choice for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Post-processing techniques currently available for dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA) enhance image quality and provide additional value in the diagnosis of PE. The objective of this article is to summarize these recent developments and discuss the appropriate use of DE-CTPA post-processing applications.
Recent FindingsDE-CTPA post-processing applications enable reconstruction of virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) and color-coded iodine-perfusion maps to increase contrast conditions and visualize lung perfusion defects in case of embolic occlusion of pulmonary arteries. Both techniques revealed a superior diagnostic performance for the detection of pulmonary emboli and assessment of the pulmonary perfusion compared to the standard image reconstructions.
SummaryDE-CTPA is a well-established method for excluding or diagnosing PE. Continued developments in DE-CTPA post-processing techniques improve patient management and allow for a quantification of disease burden.
Purpose of ReviewRadioimmunotherapy (RIT) is the targeting of radiosensitive tumors through the use of monoclonal antibodies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the benefit and challenges of RIT. We appraise factors that determine optimal targeting of tumor such as choice of target, targeting antibody, and the associated radionuclide, as well as the current methods to potentiate RIT effect.
Recent FindingsRadioimmunotherapy has a well-established role in the treatment of hematological malignancies. Recent completed and current studies in the treatment of solid malignancies are however demonstrating good clinical response with acceptable toxicity profiles.
SummarySince its inception, improved molecular engineering and targeting of new molecules, the discovery of new potential tumor targets, and the incorporation of methods to potentiate effect and reduce toxicity, will probably see radioimmunotherapy becoming a more commonplace treatment in the management of both hematological and solid malignancies.
Purpose of the ReviewWhole-body MRI is an emerging imaging technique on continuous evolution, used in many oncologic indications and introduced more recently in rheumatologic and systemic disorders. In this article, we review the recent musculoskeletal applications of this technique outside the field of cancer.
Recent FindingsWhole-body MRI, with its high sensitivity to bone marrow and soft-tissue alterations, and ability of extensive body coverage, is progressively regarded as an effective and powerful imaging tool for the detection, staging, and monitoring under treatment of many rheumatic diseases and systemic pathologies affecting the musculoskeletal system. Disease specific imaging protocols have been designed.
SummaryWhole-body MRI is an appealing, non-irradiating tool emerging in musculoskeletal imaging. It is becoming the imaging of choice in several non-oncologic indications, and its application field is on continuous expansion.
Purpose of ReviewThe purpose of this review of performance of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is to describe a strategy for optimizing CCTA protocols for various forms of CHD at diagnosis and throughout the lifetime of a patient.
Recent FindingsRecent expert consensus statements provide key recommendations for patient selection and technical performance of CCTA with tips to optimize contrast injection, scan acquisition, and understanding anatomy and postoperative changes in patients with CHD. Spectral CT will become invaluable in acquiring image data which has potential for enabling improved image quality and perhaps physiologic information.
SummaryCCTA is an important non-invasive imaging modality for making initial diagnosis and providing follow-up imaging in patients of all ages with CHD. Optimization of imaging protocols requires combined expertise in all forms of CHD, surgical palliation procedures, and knowledge of surgical options for CHD surgery.
Purpose of ReviewThe healthcare environment is under tremendous flux and the rate of change is continuously increasing. Calls have been made and efforts are underway to transform medical education. In this article, trends, key drivers, and resources for both global medical education and some specific to radiology are discussed.
Recent FindingsGreat strides have been made to begin shifting focus towards high-value healthcare delivery through both non-traditional methods and innovation. We are not alone in this journey; resources are readily offered by instrumental key drivers of medical education with collaboration and sharing as valuable tools at our disposal.
SummaryDespite initial progress, barriers persist to achieving meaningful and sustainable changes in medical education. We must commit our resources and empower our current and future medical providers to lead the way in providing high-value healthcare for our patients. An awareness of trends and driving forces in healthcare and medical education is necessary for radiologists to be relevant and vital contributors to the healthcare team.
Purpose of ReviewThe thin wall of the left atrium (LA) is difficult to visualize. The high spatial and temporal resolution of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) allows for the most accurate assessment of left atrial structure, function, and tissue characterization. This review will describe emerging methods used to image the LA with CMR, and will discuss associated clinical applications.
Recent FindingsLA function can now be described in a dynamic fashion with feature-tracking algorithms. Novel methods have been created to augment visualization of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the LA, and left atrial fibrosis can be further quantified with T1 mapping algorithms. The advancement in how we image the LA with CMR has implications in atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiomyopathic processes.
SummaryA nuanced understanding of left atrial pathology is emerging with the rapid advancement of CMR technology, which has implications in the risk stratification and treatment of several cardiovascular disease states.
Purpose of ReviewAugmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) are cutting-edge technologies that offer advanced navigational solutions. These systems are just starting to be used in interventional radiology and the literature has been limited to pre-clinical and translational experiments. In this paper, we present a review of AR and VR for musculoskeletal interventions.
Recent FindingsMixed reality systems have evolved from costly research systems to fully commercialized clinical instruments designed to facilitate operators in navigating complex anatomy. Studies within interventional radiology have demonstrated safety, improved accuracy, and decreased exposure to ionizing radiation.
SummaryWe review the progression of mixed reality systems from their early origins in computer science through their current day surgical applications, with a special focus on landmark studies within radiologic interventions for the musculoskeletal system. We highlight the instrumentation, clinical workflow, benefits and drawbacks, and suggested future directions for the two main AR systems: head-mounted display and image-overlay.
Purpose of reviewTo review and contrast varying methods of peer assessment driven practice quality improvement programs in radiology with an emphasis on peer review and peer learning.
Recent findingsReview of the literature revealed that the current consensus is that a shift away from the original peer review system toward a peer learning process has the most beneficial effects for organizations seeking to maximally improve performance. This requires altering perceptions towards the peer review process itself, and significant time, effort, and resources.
SummaryThe transition to a peer learning process is a necessity to advance the field of radiology into an era of delivering near faultless quality health care.
Purpose of ReviewThis article addresses current clinical applications, recent literature, and potential future applications of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) for musculoskeletal (MSK) applications.
Recent FindingsThe main advantage of 3D MRI over standard 2-dimensional MRI is its ability to reduce partial volume averaging artifacts and create multiplanar reconstruction (MPRs) in any plane with any slice thickness from a single high-resolution isotropic acquisition. 3D MRI acquisitions are particularly useful for the evaluation of articular cartilage, which is prone to volume averaging artifacts, and for the assessment of longitudinally coursing structures such as peripheral nerves and tendons, which are better visualized with non-orthogonal MPRs. 3D MRI is also useful for surface and volumetric analysis of bone and cartilage for preoperative and longitudinal assessments. Current research is focused on decreasing acquisition times and automating segmentation through machine learning, thus overcoming some of the current limitations of 3D MRI and providing new applications for this technique.
Summary3D MRI is widely used in MSK imaging today, and its use is likely to continue to increase in the future, with recent advancements focused on accelerated acquisition techniques and quantitative imaging.