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[en] The phase separation occurring in Fe-Ni thin lms near the Invar composition is studied by using high resolution spectromicroscopy techniques and density functional theory calculations. Annealed at temperatures around 300 C, Fe_0_._7_0Ni_0_._3_0 lms on W(110) break into micron-sized bcc and fcc domains with compositions in agreement with the bulk Fe-Ni phase diagram. Ni is found to be the di using species in forming the chemical heterogeneity. The experimentally-determined energy barrier of 1.59 0.09 eV is identi ed as the vacancy formation energy via density functional theory calculations. Thus, the principal role of the surface in the phase separation process is attributed to vacancy creation without interstitials.
[en] Here, we report the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in single crystals of a quasi-two-dimensional Fe3–xGeTe2 (x ≈ 0.36) ferromagnet grown by the flux method which induces defects on the Fe site and bad metallic resistivity. Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy was measured to provide information on the local atomic environment in such crystals. The dc and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate a second-stage transition below 119 K in addition to the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition at 153 K. A linear scaling behavior between the modified anomalous Hall resistivity ρxy/μ0Heff and longitudinal resistivity ρ2xxM/μ0Heff implies that the AHE in Fe3–xGeTe2 should be dominated by the intrinsic Karplus-Luttinger mechanism rather than the extrinsic skew-scattering and side-jump mechanisms. The observed deviation in the linear-M Hall conductivity σAxy below 30 K is in line with its transport characteristic at low temperatures, implying the scattering of conduction electrons due to magnetic disorder and the evolution of the Fermi surface induced by a possible spin-reorientation transition.
[en] In as-grown bulk crystals of Fe1+yTe1–xSex with x ≲ 0.3, excess Fe (y > 0) is inevitable and correlates with a suppression of superconductivity. At the same time, t here remains the question as to whether the character of the antiferromagnetic correlations associated wi th the enhanced anion height above the Fe planes in Te-rich samples is compatible with superconductivity. To t est this, we have annealed as-grown crystals with x = 0.1 and 0.2 in Te vapor, effectively reducing the excess Fe and in ducing bulk superconductivity. Inelastic neutron scattering measurements reveal low-energy magnet ic excitations consistent with short-range correlations of the double-stripe type; nevertheless, cooling int o the superconducting state results in a spin gap and a spin resonance, with the extra signal in the resonance being short-range with a mixed single-stripe/double-stripe character, which is different than other iron-based superconductors. In conclusion, the mixed magnetic character of these superconducting samples does not appear to be trivially explainable by inhomogeneity.
[en] To understand emergent magnetic monopole dynamics in the spin ices Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7, it is necessary to investigate the mechanisms by which spins flip in these materials. Presently there are thought to be two processes: quantum tunneling at low and intermediate temperatures and thermally activated at high temperatures. We identify possible couplings between crystal field and optical phonon excitations and construct a strictly constrained model of phonon-mediated spin flipping that quantitatively describes the high-temperature processes in both compounds, as measured by quasielastic neutron scattering. We support the model with direct experimental evidence of the coupling between crystal field states and optical phonons in Ho2Ti2O7.
[en] Here, the monoclinic (M) phases in high-performance relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals have been recognized to be a vital structural factor for the outstanding piezoelectric property. However, due to the complexity of the structure in M phases, the understanding about it is still limited. In this paper, the local twin domains and tip-voltage-induced domain switching of the M_C phase in Pb(Mg_1_/_3Nb_2_/_3)O_3 - 0.34PbTiO_3 (PMN-0.34PT) single crystal have been intensively investigated by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). By theoretically analyzing the experimental patterns of domain walls on the (001)_C face, the specific M_C twin domains in the initial annealed state of a selected area have been clarified, and the polarization orientation of the M_C phase in this sample is determined to be at an angle of 29 degrees to the < 001 > _C directions. In addition, based on the evolution of domains and the motion of domain walls under the step-increased PFM tip dc voltage (V_d_c), the switching process and features of different types of M_C domain variants are visually revealed
[en] In this study, we have systematically studied the single-hole problem in two-leg Hubbard and t–J ladders by large-scale density-matrix renormalization-group calculations. We found that the doped holes in both models behave similarly, while the three-site correlated hopping term is not important in determining the ground-state properties. For more insights, we have also calculated the elementary excitations, i.e., the energy gaps to the excited states of the system. In the strong-rung limit, we found that the doped hole behaves as a Bloch quasiparticle in both systems where the spin and charge of the doped hole are tightly bound together. In the isotropic limit, while the hole still behaves like a quasiparticle in the long-wavelength limit, our results show that its spin and charge components are only loosely bound together inside the quasiparticle, whose internal structure can lead to a visible residual effect which dramatically changes the local structure of the ground-state wave function.
[en] The electric field gradient (EFG) tensor at the 75As site couples to the orbital occupations of the As p orbitals and is a sensitive probe of local nematicity in BaFe2As2. We use nuclear magnetic resonance to measure the nuclear quadrupolar splittings and find that the EFG asymmetry responds linearly to the presence of a strain field in the paramagnetic phase. We extract the nematic susceptibility from the slope of this linear response as a function of temperature and find that it diverges near the structural transition, in agreement with other measures of the bulk nematic susceptibility. In conclusion, our work establishes an alternative method to extract the nematic susceptibility which, in contrast to transport methods, can be extended inside the superconducting state.
[en] Neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies are presented in this paper for the newly characterized polymorph of NiNb2O6 (β-NiNb2O6) with space group P42/n and μSR data only for the previously known columbite structure polymorph with space group Pbcn. The magnetic structure of the P42/n form was determined from neutron diffraction using both powder and single-crystal data. Powder neutron diffraction determined an ordering wave vector →k=(1/2,1/2,1/2). Single-crystal data confirmed the same →k vector and showed that the correct magnetic structure consists of antiferromagnetically coupled chains running along the a or b axis in adjacent Ni2+ layers perpendicular to the c axis, which is consistent with the expected exchange interaction hierarchy in this system. The refined magnetic structure is compared with the known magnetic structures of the closely related trirutile phases, NiSb2O6 and NiTa2O6. μSR data finds a transition temperature of TN~15K for this system, while the columbite polymorph exhibits a lower TN=5.7(3) K. Our μSR measurements also allowed us to estimate the critical exponent of the order parameter β for each polymorph. We found β =0.25(3) and 0.16(2) for the β and columbite polymorphs, respectively. The single-crystal neutron scattering data give a value for the critical exponent β =0.28(3) for β-NiNb2O6, in agreement with the μSR value. While both systems have β values less than 0.3, which is indicative of reduced dimensionality, this effect appears to be much stronger for the columbite system. Finally, in other words, although both systems appear to be well described by S=1 spin chains, the interchain interactions in the β polymorph are likely much larger.
[en] The application of pressure reveals a rich phase diagram for the quantum S = 1/2 spin chain material TiOCl. Here, we performed x-ray diffraction on single-crystal samples in a diamond-anvil cell down to T = 4 K and pressures up to 14.5 GPa. Remarkably, the magnetic interaction scale increases dramatically with increasing pressure, as indicated by the high onset temperature of the spin-Peierls phase. The spin-Peierls phase was probed at ~ 6 GPa up to 215 K but possibly extends in temperature to above T = 300 K, indicating the possibility of a quantum singlet state at room temperature. Near the critical pressure for the transition to the more metallic phase, coexisting phases are exemplified by incommensurate order in two directions. Further comparisons are made with the phase diagrams of related spin-Peierls systems that display metallicity and superconductivity under pressure.
[en] We described positron annihilation spectroscopy characterization results for neutron-irradiated 3 C -SiC, with a specific focus on explaining the size and character of vacancy clusters as a complement to the current understanding of the neutron irradiation response of 3 C -SiC. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy was used to capture the irradiation temperature and dose dependence of vacancy defects in 3 C -SiC following neutron irradiation from 0.01 to 31 dpa in the temperature range from 380C °to 790C .° The neutral and negatively charged vacancy clusters were identified and quantified. The results suggest that the vacancy defects that were measured by positron annihilation spectroscopy technique contribute very little to the transient swelling of SiC. Additionally, we used coincidence Doppler broadening measurement to investigate the chemical identity surrounding the positron trapping sites.Finally, we found that silicon vacancy-related defects dominate in the studied materials and the production of the antisite defect C_S_i may result in an increase in the probability of positron annihilation with silicon core electrons.