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[en] Here, we present a theory of electrostatic fluctuations in two-component plasmas where electrons and ions are described by Maxwellian distribution functions at unequal temperatures. Based on the exact solution of the Landau kinetic equation, that includes electron-electron, electron-ion, and ion-ion collision integrals, the dynamic form factor, S(→k,ω), is derived for weakly coupled plasmas. The collective plasma responses at ion-acoustic, Langmuir, and entropy mode resonances are described for arbitrary wave numbers and frequencies in the entire range of plasma collisionality. The collisionless limit of S(→k,ω) and the strong-collision result based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and classical transport at Te = Ti are recovered and discussed. Results of several Thomson scattering experiments in the broad range of plasma parameters are described and discussed by means of our theory for S(→k,ω).
[en] The local physical properties of an isolated quantum statistical system in the stationary state reached long after a quench are generically described by the Gibbs ensemble, which involves only its Hamiltonian and the temperature as a parameter. Additional quantities conserved by the dynamics intervene in the description of the stationary state, if the system is instead integrable. The resulting generalized Gibbs ensemble involves a number of temperature-like parameters, the determination of which is practically difficult. We argue that in a number of simple models these parameters can be effectively determined by using fluctuation-dissipation relationships between response and correlation functions of natural observables, quantities which are accessible in experiments.
[en] We examine the accuracy of the microcanonical Lanczos method (MCLM) developed by Long et al. [Phys. Rev. B 68, 235106 (2003)] to compute dynamical spectral functions of interacting quantum models at finite temperatures. The MCLM is based on the microcanonical ensemble, which becomes exact in the thermodynamic limit. To apply the microcanonical ensemble at a fixed temperature, one has to find energy eigenstates with the energy eigenvalue corresponding to the internal energy in the canonical ensemble. Here in this paper, we propose to use thermal pure quantum state methods by Sugiura and Shimizu [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 010401 (2013)] to obtain the internal energy. After obtaining the energy eigenstates using the Lanczos diagonalization method, dynamical quantities are computed via a continued fraction expansion, a standard procedure for Lanczos-based numerical methods. Using one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with S = 1/2, we demonstrate that the proposed procedure is reasonably accurate, even for relatively small systems.
[en] Random sequential adsorption (RSA) is a time-dependent packing process, in which particles of certain shapes are randomly and sequentially placed into an empty space without overlap. In the infinite-time limit, the density approaches a saturation'' limit. Although this limit has attracted particular research interest, the majority of past studies could only probe this limit by extrapolation. We have previously found an algorithm to reach this limit using finite computational time for spherical particles, and could thus determine the saturation density of spheres with high accuracy. Here in this paper, we generalize this algorithm to generate saturated RSA packings of two-dimensional polygons. We also calculate the saturation density for regular polygons of three to ten sides, and obtain results that are consistent with previous, extrapolation-based studies.
[en] The dynamics of concentrated suspensions of the eye-lens protein alpha crystallin have been measured using x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Measurements were made at wave vectors corresponding to the first peak in the hard-sphere structure factor and volume fractions close to the critical volume fraction for the glass transition. Langevin dynamics simulations were also performed in parallel to the experiments. The intermediate scattering function f(q,τ) could be fit using a stretched exponential decay for both experiments and numerical simulations. The measured relaxation times show good agreement with simulations for polydisperse hard-sphere colloids.
[en] A spinning gas, heated adiabatically through axial compression, is known to exhibit a rotation-dependent heat capacity. However, as equilibrium is approached, an effect is identified here wherein the temperature does not grow homogeneously in the radial direction, but develops a temperature differential with the hottest region on axis, at the maximum of the centrifugal potential energy. This phenomenon, which we call a piezothermal effect, is shown to grow bilinearly with the compression rate and the amplitude of the potential. As a result, numerical simulations confirm a simple model of this effect, which can be generalized to other forms of potential energy and methods of heating.
[en] Here, we report an experimental and computational study investigating the effects of laser preheat on the hydrodynamic behavior of a material layer. In particular, we find that perturbation of the surface of the layer results in a complex interaction, in which the bulk of the layer develops density, pressure, and temperature structure and in which the surface experiences instability-like behavior, including mode coupling. A uniform one-temperature preheat model is used to reproduce the experimentally observed behavior, and we find that this model can be used to capture the evolution of the layer, while also providing evidence of complexities in the preheat behavior. Lastly, this result has important consequences for inertially confined fusion plasmas, which can be difficult to diagnose in detail, as well as for laser hydrodynamics experiments, which generally depend on assumptions about initial conditions in order to interpret their results.
[en] The statistical-thermodynamic dislocation theory developed in previous papers is used here in an analysis of high-temperature deformation of aluminum and steel. Using physics-based parameters that we expect theoretically to be independent of strain rate and temperature, we are able to fit experimental stress-strain curves for three different strain rates and three different temperatures for each of these two materials. Here, our theoretical curves include yielding transitions at zero strain in agreement with experiment. We find that thermal softening effects are important even at the lowest temperatures and smallest strain rates.
[en] Here, magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.