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[en] Nuclear power growth, estimates have required substantial upward revision in each of the last few years to keep pace with the growing volume of nuclear power plant orders Such growth projections have been reflected in higher estimates of uranium requirements and this in turn has caused a resumption of active uranium prospecting in many countries. Identified uranium ore reserves, although theoretically sufficient for the next decade, are inadequate to satisfy the world's requirements much beyond 1980 and dus to technical problems could give rise to production shortages by the mid-1970s. It is clear that if uranium is to be available at reasonable prices to meet the forecast demand, large new reserves will have to be found and rapidly brought into production. There is no reason to assume that such deposits will not be found if a massive, well-financed and well-conceived prospecting effort is undertaken but the magnitude and urgency of the required effort is considerable Substantial new exploration work is now being undertaken in many of the more developed and traditional uranium producing countries and is extending into the developing areas of the world. It is probable that this will be an increasing feature of the next decade. (author)
[en] The many points of view of the safety evaluation fill a broad spectrum. They reflect competing interests and goals, as well as differences in resources and backgrounds. Although it is dangerous to categorize the various views, it often occurs that the technically-trained mind will look at the safety evaluation problems in a manner difficult to communicate to the mind trained in a legal approach.
[en] A map of Colombia, a country located in the northern part of South America, is shown. With an extension of almost 1.4 million square kilometers, most of its 19.0 million inhabitants; live in the central and western regions while almost half of the territory (the eastern plains) is still largely unsettled and undeveloped. Although the Colombian economy has been dependent mainly on agricultural products and the coffee production has been the primary, source of foreign currency, it is clear now that an industrialization process is beginning. The effects of each a process can already be measured in terms of improved standard of living and in a more steady monetary situation.
[en] Pakistan is one of the very few developing countries which have nuclear power plants actually under construction. The country has a unique geographical position in the sense that it consists of two provinces, namely East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which are physically separated by over 1000 miles of Indian territory. Because of the physical separation of the two provinces, the power systems and the development programmes in the two provinces are considered separately.
[en] The forecasts for the growth of world nuclear capacity which is expected to reach 30,000 MW in 1970, 110,000 MW in 1975 and more than 300,000 MW by 1980, have been accompanied by a series of economic analyses whose number and variety are probably unparalleled in the history of any other industry. The methods used in these analyses must, however, be judged not only on. the basis of their theoretical validity, but also in terms of their practical applicability to concrete situations. With this purpose in mind, a brief review of the general criteria for economic selection of investment projects, of their application.to the analysis of nuclear power and of some points of special importance for developing countries will be carried out. Since review of this kind would remain a somewhat abstract exercise an attempt has been made to flesh out the theoretical considerations by concrete figures based on the latest information available, and simplified generating costs comparisons have been added in an annex. The very purpose of the paper would be defeated if these figures, were, taken as more than illustrative values whose relevance to each case can only be ascertained by detailed economic analyses taking full account of the relevant bids as well as of the specific technical and economic features of the power system and of the country involved.
[en] The details for managing radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants have been well documented in technical reports from various nations and summarized by the IAEA in a number of publications in its Safety Series and Technical Reports Series. In the last three years the IAEA has published: Management of Radioactive Wastes at Nuclear Power Plants (1), Application of Meteorology to Safety at Nuclear Plants (2), Basic Factors for the Treatment and Disposal of Radioactive Wastes (3), Techniques for Controlling Air Pollution from the Operation of Nuclear Facilities (4), Economics in Managing Radioactive Wastes (5), and others. The salient features of the IAEA reports will be summarized here. In addition, certain features of waste management will be projected into the near future so that its influence on the economics of nuclear power generation can be assessed by those concerned.
[en] Take a system with the following simplifying assumptions: 1) The percentage annual load growth rate is constant. 2) The largest unit in any one year has a capacity corresponding to 1/N of system peak demand in that year. Thus, bigger units are being installed continuously as the system grows.
[en] Since the very beginnings of power production from.nuclear energy, experience, with these plants has naturally been of great and widespread interest. On the one hand, it serves as a basis for improvements in design and operating procedures, on the other hand, it indicates the extent, to which plants of a particular type have achieved and maintained satisfactory performance. Operating experience with individual plants or those in a particular country, has been reported at numerous scientific meetings, in scientific journals, and elsewhere. The object of this report is to gather together the considerable amount of information available on experience with these plants and present it in a convenient summarized form.
[en] The subject of my lecture is the use of nuclear energy for sea water desalination. During this study course this is the only lecture we will have on desalination and therefore we have many points to cover. I propose to cover these points in the following order: (1) Determining the feasibility, of nuclear desalination (2) Nuclear desalination and plant cycles (3) Additional nuclear desalination plant considerations and recent desalination developments. In several cases, whore there is only time for a summary, there is a more complete treatment in the Appendices.
[en] In dual purpose nuclear power stations producing both electricity and desalted water/ high pressure steam at about 250°C enters a back pressure turbine and is discharged at about 125°C into the first, stage, of a multistage sea water evaporator. Since these two temperatures are essentially fixed for technical and economic reasons, the ratio of electricity and water produced is also fixed. At least it is under optimum design conditions. This situation is acceptable as long as both products can be fully marketed; however, in some applications more water is needed than electricity or vice versa. When the power requirement dominates, water production can be reduced without much of an economic penalty by using an extraction turbine rather than a back pressure turbine. On the other hand, when the water requirement dominates, reduction in electricity output by bypassing steam or by some other device appreciably increases the cost of desalted water. Studies indicate that water costs might be increased by one-third in a ''water only'' plant. To avoid this dilemma, it was suggested several years ago that when there is no external, market for the electricity produced in a dual purpose plant it might be advantageous to use the electricity onsite for the production of industrial chemicals and metals. Thus the idea of the Agro-Industrial Complex was born.