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[en] The Israeli Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (ISDL) within the Israeli Ministry of Health was established in the mid-1970s. Since its inception, the laboratory has been responsible for the calibrations for radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and radiation protection using X rays. The main measuring equipment used was the NE instrument: 2561 chamber (still in use) and 2560 electrometer. The equipment is extremely stable. Between 2006 and 2015, the laboratory was upgraded under the IAEA TC project. A new building was constructed in the Sheba Medical Center located in Ramat Gan city. There are two operating rooms in the laboratory for Co-60 and X ray calibrations. The UJP Terabalt T100 Irradiator is used for Co-60 calibrations, while the HDI X82-225-Mo-E X ray Irradiator with two X ray tubes (W and Mo anodes) and automatic 5-meter linear positioning system are used for X ray calibrations.
[en] The SSDL of Latvia was established from 2000 to 2001 with the financial and technical support of the IAEA. In 2002 it became a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL network. The SSDL facilities are in Salaspils, just outside Riga, the capital of Latvia, on the territory of the former nuclear research reactor. The SSDL is part of a LEGMC Laboratory. Currently SSDL has 5 specialists (including head of Laboratory and quality manager) that are highly qualified and experienced professionals in the field of calibration and testing of ionizing radiation measuring and monitoring devices. There is Internal Quality Assurance system implemented in SSDL to guarantee required precision and accuracy of measurement results. The quality of services provided by the SSDL is ensured by a regular participation in international comparison measurements. The laboratory irradiators include the PANTAK PMC-1000 X ray irradiation unit (40 kV to 225 kV), as well as the gamma irradiators OB-2 (Co-60, 3.7GBq), OB-6 (Cs-137, 740 GBq) and panoramic gamma irradiator OB-34 (with four Cs-137 and three Co-60 sources) for the calibration and testing of protection and diagnostic radiology dosimeters and measuring devices.
[en] The Radiation Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health (DOH) was created in 1974 under Presidential Decree (PD) No. 480 and amended by PD 1372. This law gave the responsibility to RHS to establish and maintain a National Radiation Standard Section, commonly known as Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). On 17 February 1977, the RHS-SSDL became a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Since the establishment of the SSDL, the Radiation Health Service (former name of the Center Device Regulation, Radiation Health, and Research) has undergone several reorganizations over time. At present, the SSDL operates as part of the Physics Laboratory Support Division (PLSD) of the Common Services Laboratory (CSL) - Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Department of Health (DOH). The SSDL-FDA DOH is operated and maintained by three fulltime Medical Physicists and part-time Radiologic Technologist and Medical Equipment Technician. Its Theratron Phoenix Co-60 machine was installed in 2010 and is used for calibration of therapy level dosimeters. The laboratory is also equipped with reference secondary standard dosimeters (electrometer with ionization chambers) including brachytherapy and protection level instruments traceable to the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory. These instruments are calibrated every five years. Field dosimeter are used during on-site dosimetry audits. Local facilities perform traceable calibration of thermometers, barometers, and a hygrometer. There are also suitable phantoms available for horizontal and vertical beam set-up for radiotherapy level calibration and on-site dosimetry audits.
[en] ESR is a crown research institute owned by the New Zealand government. It has a staff of over 320 over four science centre locations and covers a wide range of testing and consultancy areas from water safety through to forensics (https://www.esr.cri.nz/our-services/testing). ESR’s National Centre of Radiation Science (NCRS) section, which our ionizing radiation calibration service is part of consists of 6 scientists and 2 technicians. Our roles include regulator support; provision of scientific and technical advice; calibrations of radiation detectors; operation of national waste store; provision of training; monitoring, research, emergency and incident response.
[en] The calibration laboratory of PTW was founded and has grown with the company since 1922 and shares 98 years of development and experience. With the initiation of the German Secondary Standard Laboratory network DKD, now DAkkS, the PTW calibration laboratory was accredited as SSDL in 1979. In the year 2000 the PTW lab became a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. The laboratory is an independent unit in the PTW-Freiburg organization. The 15 staff include 2 physicists and 10 technicians. With three therapy level Co-60 units, two Cs-137 units (one of those a VF-OG8 with multiple sources) and eight X ray installations the lab can provide a multitude of calibrations ranging from 10 kV to 300 kV X ray and including Ir-192, Cs-137 and Co-60 isotopes.
[en] The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) operates a primary standard dosimetry laboratory at its Melbourne site. The laboratory sits within the Medical Radiation Services Branch, (MRSB) alongside two other sections, the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (providing remote and on-site dosimetry audits), and Medical Imaging (providing diagnostic reference levels, advice and training). The branch’s goal, and responsibility, is to promote the safe and effective use of ionizing radiation in medicine across Australia. The absorbed dose primary standards are a key element within this work because they underpin the high accuracy dosimetry required in radiotherapy. ARPANSA is authorized by the National Measurement Institute to be the Designated Institute (DI) for radiation dosimetry. Under this authority ARPANSA operates the dosimetry laboratory which maintains and disseminates the standards for Australia. In addition to medical radiation, ARPANSA has branches for radiation health and regulation. There are 130 staff in Melbourne and 30 in Sydney. With a population of 25 million, Australia is small enough for the primary standards laboratory to provide the majority of radiotherapy calibrations, and so it also acts as a SSDL, providing regular calibration services which are accredited to ISO 17025.
[en] VSL, the Dutch National Metrology Institute (NMI), is situated in the historic town of Delft in The Netherlands. It is appointed by the government to maintain and develop the national measurement standards. VSL provides measurements traceable to internationally accepted standards and contributes to the reliability, quality and innovation of products and processes. VSL’s services are relevant for (inter)national trade, innovation in science, industry, safe and effective healthcare. The VSL dosimetry standards have a long-standing history, originating from the first primary standard developed by one of the founding fathers of the Dutch radiotherapy, Dr. Daniël den Hoed (MD), back in the 1920s at the Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis (currently Netherlands Cancer Institute, NKI, in Amsterdam). After WWII, the standard was moved to the Rotterdams Radio-Theraputic Institute (currently Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam), and later to the Dutch institute of public health (RIVM) in Bilthoven.
[en] The establishment of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) is a significant achievement for Saudi Arabia. The SSDL is based at the Biomedical Physics Department of the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, in Riyadh. It provides calibration of radiation measuring instruments used within the hospital and extends its calibration services throughout the Kingdom, the Gulf region and beyond. In June 1988, the SSDL was accepted as a member of the joint IAEA/WHO network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories with only one multisource gamma irradiator providing only radiation protection calibrations. With the installation of a 60Co in 2014, and two x-ray units, the KFSH&RC’s SSDL became the only active laboratory in the Middle east region offering the calibration of therapy level ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water and diagnostic radiology detectors in terms of air kerma, kVp, HVL and air kerma length. Furthermore, in 2020, started using the after loading 192Ir brachytherapy machine to start calibrating HDR brachytherapy well type chambers.
[en] The Italian Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (INMRI) was established in Rome in the 1980s within the now called Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA) and was officialized in 1991 as a National Metrology Institute (NMI) by the Italian Parliament. In 1999, ENEA-INMRI became one of the three Italian NMIs signatories of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). Since its very beginning, the Institute was oriented towards the establishment of standard instruments in the areas of dosimetry, radioactivity, and neutron measurements. ENEA-INMRI became official member of the BIPM CCRI sections I (dosimetry) and II (radioactivity) in the 1990s and of the CCRI section III in the 2010s. The Institute is organized in three sections (dosimetry, radioactivity, neutrons) and currently counts about 15 staff persons (70% research scientists, 30% research technicians, one administrative assistant).
[en] National standard of Dosimetric Quantities of Gamma Radiation No. 028/02 was established in 2002. The standard consists of several parts: the primary chamber OMH ND 1005/A; secondary chambers PTW TW 23361, OMH ND 1000, OMH ND 1007, LND 5120, PTW TW 30013, Thermo 2571A; two gamma irradiators TEMA IM6/M and IM4/P containing seven 137Cs sources; the gamma irradiator Chisobalt B75 containing one 60Co source; the electrometers Keithley 6517A and 6517B and other ancillary equipment such as temperature, pressure and humidity meters, cavity meters and PMMA phantom. The primary standard is a cylindrical graphite walled cavity ionization chamber ND1005/A, serial number 8111, shown in figure 12, constructed by the Országos Mérésügyi Hivatal (OMH) in the 1980s. The focus of the institute is the development, calibration, verification and type testing of dosimetry equipment in the field of radiotherapy and radiation protection.