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[en] Westinghouse LFR overview: Westinghouse's GenIV technology of choice to achieve two primary missions - Economic competitiveness even in the most challenging global market, and Versatility to fulfill needs of diverse future markets (flexible electricity, applications beyond electricity, fuel cycle closure).; Enhanced passive safety relative to GenIII + plants - Passive Safety Category B as a goal.; Integral configuration, modular construction.; Staged approach to development, accounting for maturity of design solutions.; Selected innovations to improve economics and enhance market versatility.; Optioneering studies ongoing on two key aspects of the design - Passive Shutdown System and Refueling scheme. Conclusions: Westinghouse, in collaboration with domestic and international organizations, is developing LFR as its next generation high capacity nuclear power plant.; Unique design solutions are adopted to achieve a step change in economics and enhanced safety simultaneously.; Safety case is being developed for pre licensing meetings with UK Regulators - Decay heat removed passively through RVACS type system (water cooling followed by air cooling).; Conventional RV GV for addressing lead leaks. Primary HX failure addressed through HX design, rupture discs and filtered vent system, and Passive shutdown system being designed.; Testing of key systems and components to be performed as part of the UK Advanced Modular Reactor program.
[en] Outline: - EU nuclear energy context: 106 nuclear reactors are in operation in 13 EU Member States; Nuclear energy provides about 25% of EU gross electricity generation, around 50% of EU low carbon electricity generation, and supports around 1 mil. jobs; In EU, each Member State can decide on the inclusion of nuclear power in its energy mix; 4 new reactors are under construction (FR, FI, Slovakia); About 20 reactors are in different stages of planning and preparation in 8 Member States (BG, CZ, EE, FI, HU, LT, PL, RO). - JRC Work Programme 2021 2022 related to the LMFR Safety. - Examples of the JRC technical activities in support to the LMFR Safety. - DG RTD activities in support to the LMFR Safety.
[en] Introduction: The 2nd SDG on SSC provide detailed guidelines for SFR designers to support practical application of the SDC in design process to ensure the highest level of safety; The 2nd SDG is now under the international review process (IAEA and OECD/NEA's WGSAR); GIF SDC-TF received the comments from IAEA and OECD/NEA's WGSAR. Concluding remarks: GIF SDC-TF greatly appreciate important comments from IAEA and OECD/NEA's WGSAR; GIF SDC-TF will revise the 2nd SDG on SSC including terminology and configuration.
[en] Contents: Safety Standards in scope of the review. Technologies in scope of the review - Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR), Lead Fast Reactors (LFR), High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs), Molten Salt Reactors ,Water-cooled SMRs, Transportable SMRs, Micro-sized reactors. Review approach - Key Questions: Do current requirements and recommendations cover the safety issues related to the new possibilities opened by the novel designs? (areas of novelty); Are there gaps that need to be addressed to ensure that the level of safety established by the IAEA fundamental safety principles and safety objective will be complied with?. Outcomes from the March Consultancy Meeting - Areas of Novelty WC SMRs; Areas of Novelty Non-Water-Cooled Reactors; Applicability of Siting and Design for External Hazards Safety Standards; Applicability of Waste Management Safety Standards.
[en] Outline: - The Lead cooled Fast Reactors in GIF: SSTAR(USA) Small-sized, battery type reactor with long core life; BREST-OD-300(Russia) Medium-sized, 'pools-in-loop' type reactor with associated closed fuel cycle facilities; ELFR(Europe) Large-sized, integral type reactor for closing of the fuel cyle. - Activities of the GIF LFR provisional SSC (pSSC). - Status of LFR R&D activities in MoU Countries/Entities: Japan, Russian Federation, Republic of Korea, USA, China and Euratom. - Development of the GIF LFR Safety Design Criteria. Outlook on LFR SDC: Work started during 2014, and the present report is the result of discussions among members of the LFR pSSC, benefiting greatly from review and consultations with the GIF RSWG, ANL, IRSN and other partners of the Euratom collaborative project ARCADIA; LFR SDC Report has been updated following the IAEA SSR 2/1 (rev. 1) as well as the IAEA Safety Glossary (2018); The report endorsed by RSWG in February 2021 and approved by the GIF Experts Group in March 2021; Planned to be followed by reviews by external partners (IAEA, WGSAR); Further steps will include the development of detailed Safety Design Guidelines for selected topics.
[en] Safety Design Criteria for Gen-IV Reactors: Socially acceptable higher level of safety should be pursued aiming at future commercialization.; Broad range of design concepts have been proposed according to fit various purpose and demand.; Regarding market point of view, worldwide deployment of Gen-IV reactors is desirable. Thus, international standardization of safety design criteria is important.; On the other hand, each country has its own regulatory framework and siting conditions. Quantitative criteria has dependency on environment of each country.; Current focus is on the development of qualitative international safety design standard.; Participation both of development bodies and regulatory bodies from various countries for the development process is important. GIF's Safety & Reliability Goals and Safety Approach: SR-1: Excel in Operational Safety and Reliability - Safety and reliability during normal operation, and likely operational events that assume forced outage rate; SR-2: Very low likelihood & degree of reactor core damage - Minimizing frequency of initiating events, and design features for controlling & mitigating any initiating events w/o causing core damage; SR-3: Eliminate the need for offsite emergency response - Safety architecture to manage & mitigate severe plant conditions, for minimizing the possibility and the amount of releases of radiation. LMFR Specific Design Criteria: Proper liquid metals, which have suitable properties as fast reactor coolant, are selected and used - Smaller neutron moderation, and High boiling point and high thermal conductivity. Concluding Remarks: Since there are various technical choices, safety design standard for Gen-IV reactors should include commonly applicable, technology-neutral criteria.; Appropriate combination of deterministic and risk informed approach should be pursued aiming at rational safety design.; Since SFR and LFR have common aspects as LMFR, consistency as LMFR safety design criteria is important in SFR SDC and LFR SDC.; On the other hand, clarification of SFR and LFR specific safety design criteria is also important.
[en] The main objectives of this meeting/workshop are to: Discuss the development of the draft GIF report provisionally entitled Safety Design Guidelines on Key Structures, Systems and Components; Discuss the review comments of external stakeholders on GIF report on Safety Design Guidelines on Key Structures, Systems and Components; Discuss the development of the Safety Design Criteria and Safety Design Guidelines for lead and lead-bismuth cooled fast reactors; and Share information on the implementation of SDG for SFRs and SDC for LFRs by the designers of the innovative LMFR concepts.
[en] Three-step development of fast reactor: Experimental, Demonstration, Commercial. CEFR Project: One of the largest item of China national ''863'' hi-tech plan; Pool type, sodium cooled experimental fast reactor with tertiary circuit; Main parameters (Reactor core); Main test programs in the CEFR Physical start-up. China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CFR600); Design for High Safety: Goal Elimination of Off-site Emergency; Three shut-down methods including Fluid suspension control safety rods; Passive designs applied in pressure protection of main vessel, siphon breaker, rupture disk to avoid large sodium-water reaction. CFR1200 Preconception design: Requirements - Review GIF SDC for CFR1200, Review Guidance for Developing Principal Design Criteria for Advanced (Non-Light Water) Reactor, Top requirements for CFR1200 pre-concept design, System requirements for CFR1200 pre-concept design.; TRA - Methodology, Assessment S-CO2 conversion system and passive shutdown system.; S-CO2 conversion system - Implementation plan of the S-CO2 conversion system research: scope and contents of the research, parameter package, technical specification document.
[en] UK Fast Reactor Activities: - Continued restoration of the Dounreay site: Decommissioning of DFR and PFR. - Activities within the Nuclear Innovation Programme of the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS): Reactor Physics-Coupling of thermal hydraulics, neutronics and fuel performance codes for fast reactors; Strategic Toolkit Knowledge capture from the UK's historical fast reactor programmes. - The BEIS Advanced Modular Reactor (AMR) Feasibility and Development Project: A £ 45 M BEIS-funded project to give potential vendors of advanced (Gen IV) modular reactors the opportunity to qualify for funding to assist in developing their systems. - Continued contributions to European Commission H 2020 projects: ESFR_SMART and SafeG.
[en] The NRC is strategically transforming and modernizing to prepare for safe deployment of Avanced Reactors. NRC's implementation action plans are ensuring readiness in important strategic areas. Leveraging flexible review strategies with safety focus: Core Review Team Approach; Robust pre-application engagement program; Regulatory Review Roadmap. Enhancing access to information to improve transparency and increase engagement.