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[en] The use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiations is varying. The principles of radiation protection must be applied to professional exposures as well to exposure of patients in medical purpose; this work reviews the French legislation, established according to recommends of international organisms and to European standards of the EURATOM treaty. The regulation concerns the limits of exposure to radiations, the agreements and control rules of devices and installations, the rules of certification of products and devices, the rules of transport of radioactive matters, the rules of prevention and safety. (N.C.)
[en] There is strong growth in the demand for energy resources across the diverse French administered overseas territories and departments (hereinafter the 'Overseas'). This demand should not be brought into conflict with the policies needed to control consumption and improve energy efficiency. The overseas territories are currently at a 'catch up' stage in terms of this significant and growing legitimate social demand. The overseas territories, which must import all of their oil, gas and coal, have considerable renewable energy resources, which in many cases have been developed with some success. These resources are of a more varied nature than those in metropolitan France. While the demand should continue to grow, the Overseas have set an objective of energy self-sufficiency for 2030. In many respects, the overseas territories are something of a laboratory for the development of renewable energies. The diversity of their natural environments facilitates experimentation in all the modes of production under real conditions. The potential of the Overseas in this regard, its role as a laboratory for energy sources that will be part our future energy supply, along with the industrial issues as regards exporting national expertise, justify drawing attention to the experiences in these territories and funding an original energy system, the creation of which falls to the Overseas
[en] After the statement of several propositions and recommendations, this report states and discusses the option of the CESE on the content of the bill project related to the struggle against climate change. It addresses different issues which correspond to different chapters of this bill project: mobility (alternatives to individual vehicles and cleaner vehicles, optimization of goods road transport, better organisation of mobility, limitation of emissions by air transport and development of train-plane inter-modality), housing (building renovation, decrease of energy consumption, struggle against artificialization of soils, protection of ecosystems), food (support to a healthy, sustainable and low-emitting food), consumption (information and education, advertising regulation, development of bulk selling and of returnable glass), production and work (economy greening, adaptation of work to ecological transition, protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, renewable energies for all and by all). Some transverse recommendations are also stated regarding the funding of climate policies, the general design of policies and of governance, and the arrangement for objective follow-up and correction of noticed deviations.
[fr]Le CESE, saisi par le Premier ministre, a examine le projet de loi portant lutte contre le dereglement climatique et renforcement de la resilience face a ses effets. Cette loi doit permettre d'atteindre les objectifs fixes au niveau national et international, dans un esprit de justice sociale. Le CESE s'est prononce a plusieurs reprises sur la politique climatique et a constate que la France ne se situe pas sur les trajectoires prevues par sa Strategie nationale bas-carbone. Ce projet de loi ne parait pas en mesure de redresser la situation climatique et de prendre en compte les inegalites sociales. Alors qu'il faudrait tripler le rythme annuel de reduction des emissions et les diviser par six d'ici 2050, les mesures apparaissent souvent limitees, differees ou soumises a des conditions telles que leur mise en oeuvre a terme rapproche est incertaine. Les rares estimations d'impact fournies font apparaitre leur insuffisance. Le CESE assortit ses analyses de preconisations pour progresser.
[en] This report is a contribution to the debate on the second period of the French national low-carbon strategy (SNBC) which, with multi-annual energy programming (PPE), addresses greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumptions and productions on the metropolitan territory. This report notably highlights the important delay taken by the first period of the SNBC, and that projects for the SNBC and the PPE remain very much unclear or insufficient. Thus, in its first part, the report discusses the readjustment of the scenario regarding the global trajectory, the insufficient means dedicated to residential and office buildings, the choice of a fleet change rather than a traffic reduction as far as mobility and transports are concerned, well targeted objectives for agriculture, forest and food but still waiting for implementation policies, and the good orientation of the industrial and energy production sectors. In its second part, it discusses the new energy mix and the security of supply: renewable cold and heat as an underestimated stake, insufficient objectives for renewable gas, delayed diversification of the electricity mix, many topics to be addressed regarding security of supply, grids and storage, and the lack of numbers regarding research and development. The third part proposes a discussion of economic, social and environmental impacts, and outlines the lack of progress in the field of coordination regarding the relationship between territories and transition governance. The last part proposes a set of recommendations regarding collaboration and dialogue, the way towards carbon neutrality, and ways to accompany change.
[en] Ecological transition is a concrete and progressive measure, to be committed to here and now, aimed at better taking environmental challenges into account, with a strong regional dimension. The 4 main environmental challenges are attenuation and adaptation to climate change, the preservation of biodiversity, access to raw materials and the protection of human health. This approach is within the context of sustainable development. It implies a profound change from our current development model. Energy transition is one of the strands of ecological transition. Certain examples from abroad are worth bearing in mind in the field of energy transition (Germany, the United Kingdom), or the scope of stimulus packages aimed at ecological transition (South Korea). Ecological transition has a cost: collective anticipation. In France, available financing tools are above all those of traditional environmental policies, some of which benefit from dedicated financing. Other public policies integrate the challenges of ecological transition in a diverse manner, and mostly very poorly. As for the private financing of this transition, this depends firstly on the profitability of the economic framework, which is still far from optimal. It also depends on taking extra-financial criteria into account, something which is still very weak. To implement ecological transition, room for manoeuvre needs to be created in a constrained financial context: weakening growth, public expenditure contingencies, and difficulties in deploying private saving. To properly meet economic and social challenges, ecological transition must contribute to the economic dynamism of regions, facing the challenge of 'sustainable competitiveness'. To achieve this we need to identify the uncertainties which hinder the proactive approach of key stakeholders, to better articulate the various decision-making levels and improve the resilience of regional economies. The mobilisation of civil society is a key point of the transition: it must be financed by stakeholders in the field, and supported by financial stakeholders. Ecological transition must be properly appropriated by citizens and offer them a future of new prosperity: new jobs, improvement of well-being, the equitable sharing of effort and reduction of inequalities. The financing of ecological and energy transition requires three categories of investments: firstly, training, mobilisation and support for change, then new technological solutions, and finally the maintenance and improvement of existing solutions
[en] This publication states the critical opinion of the French economic, social and environmental Council (CESE) on the French energy policy notably defined within the law on energy transition for a green growth. In a first part, the authors discuss the different ambitious objectives (global objectives and those related to a low carbon strategy, to the energy multi-year programme, and to simplification) and outline the necessity of a better implementation. Then, they address aspects related to governance, and outline the complexity of the organisation at the national level, an insufficient steering, and the fact that territories are now awarded new competencies and that questions remain unanswered as far as means are concerned. The report then proposes a first assessment which reveals that global objectives are difficult to reach, means are insufficient, renovation objectives (for housing and office building) are far from being reached, transports appear to be a weak point in the transition, the taking of these issues into account in agriculture is still insufficient, industry and services display a contrasted situation, energy production and service providers are facing complex evolutions, and renewable energies are facing difficulties in reaching the desired pace. The last part discuss how to accelerate energy transition through a mobilisation of all actors
[en] This report from the Economic, Social and Environmental Council discusses the content of the French bill project on energy transition for a green growth. It addresses the main issues and objectives of this bill project: to define common objectives for a successful energy transition, a stronger energy independence for France, and for the struggle against climate change, better renovation of buildings to save energy, decrease prices and create jobs, to develop clean transports to improve air quality and protect French people health, to struggle against wastes and to promote circular economy from product design product recycling, to promote renewable energies to diversify energy sources and to develop the resources of French territories, to strengthen nuclear safety and citizen information, to simplify and clarify procedures to be more efficient and competitive, and to give the possibility and power of acting together to citizen, territories and State. The statements of the different Council's groups are reported
[en] Within the European framework, France has committed to a 20% reduction of its GHG emission by 2020 compared with 1990, and reaching the 'factor 4' by 2050. The 2005 POPE Act (the French Energy Policy Guidance Act) makes climate change a priority of the energy policy, setting out a 3% yearly reduction of our country's GHG emissions. This means combining energy efficiency and restraint, as is highlighted by the first chapter of the 'energy transition road-map'. Energy is a major component of transport. Designing its transition requires us to question the very organisation of our society: materials and their usage, the means of transport to favour and the infrastructures to implement, costs for competitiveness, the organisation of work and commuting... At a global scale, needs for mobility are increasing, as is the urgent need to deal with environmental problems. There are huge emerging markets for public transport, increasingly efficient and smart cars, information and transmission networks, infrastructures, the organisation of transport... However, France has all the assets to become a world leader in carbon-free transport. Succeeding in this change means organising the service to meet the needs of all, people, businesses, transport operators and industry, starting this transition right away. Policies must clearly define objectives and the means of achieving them through coordinated actions within a long term approach. The ESEC formulates a set of proposals in this direction
[en] After a brief synthesis, the opinion of the Council is stated. It presents the main objectives of the storage of electric energy, its main physical-chemical principles and the available technologies (gravity, compressed air energy storage, electrochemical, thermal, electric, and inertial storage), and the three main techniques: pumped-storage hydroelectricity, batteries, hydrogen. Global assessment and recommendations are discussed, notably in terms of economic and financial consequences, but also in terms of technological choices, research and development, local development, industrial cooperation, and legal framework. Appendices notably present in detail the different technologies, the operation of the electric grid in France and Europe, and some experiments
[en] As adaptation is required to face climate changes, this report addresses adaptation measures related to living things, notably in their interactions with water, biodiversity, ground and marine ecosystems, agriculture, fishing, forests, health, in mainland and overseas territories. After having presented the global context (how to face the climatic challenge, meaning of adaptation and mitigation, main impacts and climate risks for the different continents, how policies take this challenge into account, presentation of the context and content of the French national Plan for adaptation), this report outlines and discusses the importance of a shared vision of adaptation to climate among regions, the need to integrate climate adaptation in public action based on common rules, and to develop fundamental and applied knowledge