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[en] Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems for off-site emergency management (RODOS), etc
[en] There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with energy use in the transport and domestic sectors and a number of non-environmental externalities. Phase 3 of the project will be undertaken within the European Commission's 4th Framework Programme (1995-1998) and will concentrate on the application of the accounting framework in support of policy issues and decision making. A major result of this work is the methodology which has been developed. This is a significant advance on earlier studies of the external costs of energy. It provides a transparent basis on which different impacts, technologies and locations may be compared. It is suitable for evaluation of the health and environmental damages due to increments in electricity production, with or without monetary valuation of the impacts. This report reviews this methodology and presents the major results obtained in its application to seven important fuel cycles, namely the coal, lignite, oil, gas, nuclear, hydro and wind fuel cycles. Chapter 2 reviews the methodology developed for the quantification of impacts and discusses the associated issues. Chapter 3 discusses the methodological issues associated with the economic valuation of impacts. Chapters 4 and 5 report in detail on the assessment of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Chapter 6 summarises the progress that has been made to date on the ExternE Project and presents a comparison of the results obtained for the four fossil fuel cycles together with results from the nuclear and renewable fuel cycles. This project is at the forefront of work in this area. It has drawn together an extensive multidisciplinary team of environmental scientists, energy technologists, health and ecology experts, atmospheric modellers, economists and computer analysts. The results obtained are based on thorough review of scientific and economic studies. This does not mean that exact values have been established for external costs. Indeed, one of our most important conclusions is that the uncertainties are large. Previous analyses, offering apparently precise estimates, have tended to neglect uncertainty and, in that respect, are very misleading. Full reports describing in detail the work undertaken on each of the seven fuel cycles are being published simultaneously with the present volume. (author)
[en] Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of methodological issues was reached on both sides of the Atlantic. Since 1993 the study has continued in Europe as the ExternE-Project, and now involves an international team of more than 30 organisations. The current study has three main objectives: 1. to identify and develop a suitable methodology with which to quantify the external costs and benefits of the major fuel cycles for electricity generation and conservation, using the best available models and data. This is to be done using a common framework for assessment of different fuel cycles, in order that fair comparison can be made between them; 2. to use this methodology to assess the external costs for a number of case studies representative of each fuel cycle; 3. to make recommendations on areas in which further research is required in order that future estimates of damages can be made with greater confidence. This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the oil and the natural gas fuel cycles. Estimates of impacts have been made following critical review of existing data and models rather than from original basic research. This review has been performed by a multi-disciplinary team including specialists in the fields of health, forestry, ecology, materials science, atmospheric chemistry and physics. energy technology, computer science and economics. The methodology developed in the ExternE Project is described in more detail elsewhere (European Commission. 1995a). Wherever possible we have used exactly the same methodology to quantify the same form of damage for each fuel cycle. However, some differences will be observed in the assessment of the fuel cycles considered in this report. These arise largely through the status of development of the methodology when certain parts of the work were completed. Wherever possible these differences have been resolved from a methodological perspective in the companion report (European Commission, 1995a)
[en] The years 1999-2001 were characterised by a re-organisation of the Unit, due to the retirement of the most experienced colleagues.Fortunately, we were lucky to find dynamic and competent new colleagues. The year 2001 was also characterised by major works at the two accelerator laboratories. The 3.7 MV Van-de-Graaff accelerator was dismantled, a large concrete shielding wall was installed outside the 7 MV Van-de-Graaff, and the hot lab. was refurbished. At GELINA, the waveguides for the last two accelerator sections (refurbished in 1994/95) were replaced and the associated two klystrons were also replaced by new types. These and other refurbishment activities are described in more detail in Chapter 5. The experimental activities concentrated in neutron data measurements for applications related to nuclear waste transmutation and innovative reactor systems, and for basic studies to improve the modeling of neutron-induced reactions, especially the fission process and light charged particle production. After the successful experimental campaign on 99Tc the capture and transmission cross sections of another long-lived fission product 129l were measured in collaboration with CEA Saclay. The preparation of the samples out of 210 I of waste solution from a fuel reprocessing facility was a major effort for the Samples Preparation Group of IRMM, for which we are very grateful. The experiments extended into 2002 and are described in more detail in Chapter 1. In a collaboration with the Universities of Örebro and Uppsala the neutron-induced fission cross sections of 233Pa were measured for the first time with monochromatic neutrons at several energies between threshold and 3 MeV. Measurements of these important cross sections for the Th fuel cycle are continuing in 2002. The measurements of light charged-particle production cross-sections continued at the Van-de Graaff accelerator in collaboration with FZJ Jülich and visiting scientists from Romania, Bulgaria and Hungary, using the activation technique. These measurements focused on Pb and structural materials (cf. Chapter 1). In the case of natMo(n, x)94Nb (T1/2=2·104 a) use was made of the HADES underground laboratory operated by the Radionuclide Section of IRMM at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN. Parallel to the experimental efforts, theoretical studies were carried out for improved modeling of LCP reactions. Both theoretical and experimental efforts continued for the understanding of the nuclear fission process. 234U(n, f) cross-sections were measured at GELINA in the resonance energy domain and complemented by measurements with thermal neutrons at ILL Grenoble. Fission fragment masses and total kinetic energy distributions were measured for 239Pu at GELINA in the resonance energy domain in search for spin-dependent fluctuations. Statistical calculations in the frame of the multi-modal approach for the prompt neutron multiplicities and spectra of 237Np(n, f) and 238U(n, f) reactions and for the 237Np(n, f) cross-sections were carried out in collaboration with visiting scientists from the University of Bucharest. The NP Unit participated in a CCRI key comparison of neutron fluence measurements, using one of its proton recoil telescopes at neutron energies of 1.2, 5.0 and 14.8 MeV at PTB Braunschweig. Measurements of the 10Β(η,α!)/ (η,αο) branching ratios started at GELINA using a gridded ionization chamber and at the Van-de-Graaff using a time projection chamber and a fast waveform digitizer. Especially the development of analog-digital signal processing techniques using fast digitizers proved to be a very promising activity for improvement of, e.g., LCP and (η, η'γ) cross-section measurements. One highlight of 2001 was certainly the Neutron Data Conference ND 2001 in Tsukuba. A total of 20 presentations were given with participation from our Unit. Many of the results presented in this activity report have been presented previously at the ND 2001 Conference. The reduced personnel of the NP Unit could partly been compensated by very fruitful co-operations with visiting scientists from Candidate Countries to the European Union, especially from Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. A total of eight visitors from these countries joined the Unit during 2001. Four Ph.D. and two post-doctorate fellows (one from a Candidate Country) performed their measurements at the IRMM NP facilities.
[en] The study establishes the link between the growing wind market and the emerging hydrogen market of the European Union, in a so-called 'wind-hydrogen strategy'. It considers specifically the diversion of wind electricity, as a wind power control mechanism in high wind penetration situations, for the production of renewable electrolytic hydrogen - a potentially important component of a renewable hydrogen-inclusive economy. The analysis examines the long-term competitiveness of a wind-hydrogen strategy via cost-benefit assessment. It indicates the duration and extent to which (financial) support, if any, would need to be provided in support of such a strategy, and the influence over time of certain key factors on the outcome
[en] Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except in the cases of electricity generation and transportation, where accidental situations are evaluated. The impacts of construction and decommissioning of a facility are included in the electricity generation stage. It is important to stress that this methodology does not employ a worst case scenario analysis, as is usually done for safety or regulatory compliance assessments, but intends to evaluate the impacts expected from the operations. In a few cases, however, when no reasonable alternative seemed possible, conservative values were used. The impact pathway approach requires an inventory and assessment of all potential impacts, however, within the context of the ExternE project it has not been possible to consider all of these. Therefore, only the most important impacts, called priority impacts, have been included. Releases of radioactive material to the environment, which potentially impact public health, were given the highest priority. Occupational health impacts, from both radiological and nonradiological causes, were the next priority, even though the extent to which occupational health impacts can be considered as externalities has not yet been addressed
[en] This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are dependent on the type of impact under assessment. For example, noise effects will only be experienced over a maximum of a few kilometres; impacts associated with emission of acidifying pollutants from power stations act over one thousand kilometres or more; impacts associated with long lived radioisotopes emitted to the atmosphere, or greenhouse gases, require global assessment. In all cases we have sought to quantify impacts over as much of the range affected as possible. Similar variation between impacts exists with respect to the timescales involved - some impacts are short lived, others will persist for many thousands of years. The assessment of long-term impacts brings in a need for discounting. The central discount rate used here is 3%, though a rate of 0% has also been used for transparency, to demonstrate the problem of discounting long term impacts, and also to demonstrate sensitivity to discount rate. This report aims to present the methodology in a transparent manner in more detail than has been possible elsewhere, clearly identifying the uncertainties involved and the assumptions that are being made. A major difficulty concerns the quantitative description of the uncertainties associated with the analysis. The major problem is that some aspects of uncertainty cannot be described numerically from the available data. To date a largely qualitative assessment of uncertainty has been adopted although new approaches are currently being investigated within ExternE. These will be incorporated into the methodology during the next phase of the Project. Some observers have stated that the detailed methodology described in this report imposes unreasonable analytical demands. However, ExternE and other recent projects have demonstrated that this is no longer the case. Software developed under ExternE will soon be available, further reducing the demands placed upon analysts. The methodology described in this report thus provides a means of providing externality data that incorporates the latest scientific and economic knowledge on the external costs of energy which can then be incorporated within decision making processes. (author)
[en] Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of methodological issues was reached on both sides of the Atlantic. Since 1993 the study has continued in Europe as the ExternE-Project, and now involves an international team of more than 30 organisations. The current study has three main objectives: 1. to design a unified methodology for quantifying the various social costs associated with the production and consumption of energy; 2. to use the methodology to evaluate the external costs of incremental use of different fuel cycles in different locations in the European Union; 3. to identify critical methodological issues and research requirements. At the same time as the publication of the present report, further reports are being published on the other major fuel cycles for electricity generation, including uranium, oil, gas, wind and hydro. A further volume, providing greater detail on the methodology used for assessment of the impacts of the fossil fuel cycles and their valuation is also being published. Additional reports on other fuel cycles, and implementation of the methodology in different countries will follow shortly. This document assesses the progress made in quantifying environmental and health damages associated with the coal and lignite fuel cycles. Estimates of impacts have been made following critical review of existing data and models rather than from original basic research. This review has been performed by a multi-disciplinary team including specialists in the fields of health, forestry, ecology, materials science, atmospheric chemistry and physics, energy technology, computer science and economics. Wherever possible we have used exactly the same methodology to quantify the same form of damage for each fuel cycle and for each location. However, some differences will be observed in the assessment of the fuel cycles considered in this report. These arise largely through the status of development of the methodology when certain parts of the work were completed. Wherever possible these differences have been resolved from a methodological perspective in the companion report (European Commission, 1995)
[en] The roundtable had a twofold objective. First it aimed at classifying and ranking the most important factors in CEE countries impeding a more rapid deployment of renewable energy sources for electricity production (RES-E). We used the following problem classification: Financial: regulative - support measures; and Institutional: network management -infrastructure (trans-boundary power exchange, power systems interconnection / fair third party access rules); market structure/concentration. The second objective was to identify efficient ways to overcome these barriers from demonstrations of successful examples from Member States with longer RES-E integration experience. Some of the best available techniques and country experience with the different policies were presented at the roundtable. The invited experts shared their experiences gained at various institutions: energy regulation offices, grid operating entities, energy production units and quite a few in energy related research organisations. Beside the positive examples, the barriers that exist in the various member states were also discussed.
[en] This Note is the proceedings of a workshop dedicated to the studies 'The future of coal' (EUR 222744 EN) and 'Coal of the future' (EUR 22644 EN). More specifically, the goal of the workshop was to present and discuss the findings of the studies with a limited number of distinguished experts in the field and concerned Commission services, in order to validate the reported findings and to identify areas where further research and investigation is needed